Apple tree Shtrifel - again on the wave of success
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Children and adults associate the day of September 1 with the beginning of classes, but for me this day is associated with the aroma of two ripe apples lying in my portfolio, which will be remembered for a lifetime. My grandmother put them there every day. The name of the apple tree was Shtrifel. It was planted by my grandfather at the dawn of his youth, he died at 80 and for another 30 years it bore fruit in my memory, for a total of about 100 years. Shtrifel is an apple tree preferred by gardeners of the world for two centuries.
Description of apple variety Shtrifel
Where the Shtrifel variety comes from is not known for certain, but judging by the speaking names (Streifling, Liflyandskoe, Grafenstein, Amtmanskoe, Strefel), the variety was bred in Holland, Germany or the Netherlands. Over time, the apple tree was appreciated by European gardeners, then by the Baltic, and then by the farmers of the republics of the former USSR. In the State Register of Russia, Strifel was included in 1947 under the name Autumn striped, can be grown in the Northern, North-Western, Central, Central Black Earth, Volgo-Vyatka and Middle Volga regions of the country.
Apple tree Shtrifel can be grown in most regions of the European part of Russia
Characteristics of the variety
The Shtrifel tree is powerful, spreading, sometimes reaching 7 meters in height. The leaves are dark green, oval, with uneven teeth along the edges, a clear relief of veins on a wrinkled surface, folded in half along the central line. Reddish petioles are located at right angles from the shoots, forming dense clusters of leaves at their ends. The bark of the branches is smooth, cognac-colored with a barely noticeable sheen.
Shtrifel blooms with large snow-white pink flowers. The type of fruiting is mixed, the ovaries are formed on ringlets (short branches of 3 cm) and fruit twigs (long annual branches from 15 cm and more).
Apple tree Shtrifel sprawling, high
The fruits of Shtrifel are of autumn consumption, large (up to 300 g), truncated-conical in shape with pronounced ribbing at the base. The apple skin is thin and smooth, covered with a light waxy coating. Color - yellowish salad with intense red-orange stripes. As it ripens, the surface acquires a beautiful carmine color and blushes the entire apple. Taste sweet and sour, harmonious, with fresh duchess notes, dessert. The pulp is tender, juicy, slightly loose, by the end of ripening with pinkish veins inside, with a strong aroma.
The stem is frost-resistant. The level of winter hardiness of the variety is above average. Withstands low temperatures, inferior in this indicator to Grushovka Moskovskaya, Anis, but surpasses Antonovka and Pepin saffron, suitable for growing in northern regions in stanza (creeping) form. The variety has a weak drought tolerance. Prolonged high temperatures Strifel does not tolerate well: leaves fly around, fruits are affected by scab.
In a particularly dry summer, it needs frequent evening sprinkling (until the morning) and abundant watering.
The Shtrifel variety is self-fertile and needs pollination. For this, the following are suitable:
- White filling;
Productivity and fruiting
The variety is prone to cyclic fruiting. The first apples appear only after 7 years, but yields increase from year to year. Mature plants bear fruit well. In favorable years, up to 400 kg are removed from the tree. The older the apple tree, the greater the need for renewal. Young Shtrifel bears fruit annually, adult (after 15 years) - periodically. The fruits of Shtrifel ripen by the beginning of September. Apples are kept refrigerated until early December.
Table: dynamics of the content of vitamin C in apples of the Shtrifel variety
Early harvesting will help preserve the fruits better, if the apples ripen on the branch, then they lie less. The fruits have a presentable appearance and are well transported.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The positive aspects of the variety noted by gardeners:
- high winter hardiness;
- scab resistance;
- good productivity;
- attention-grabbing appearance;
- excellent taste;
- good transport tolerance;
- the possibility of 3-month storage of fruits.
The negative aspects of the variety of summer residents include:
- the tendency of mature trees to cycle fruiting;
- the vigor of the apple tree;
- low drought resistance.
Planting an apple tree
The distance between the trees should be at least 6x6 m. This is important for the future provision of the tree with the required area of food and sunlight.
Choosing the right place
We approach the choice of a planting site for a seedling in accordance with the conditions:
- We plant an apple tree of the Shtrifel variety in sunny, windy places.
- Any soil is suitable (not highly acidified), but it is desirable that it be fertile, light and neutral (pH 5.5-6). On heavy loams, drainage must be done, and acidic soil must be neutralized with dolomite flour.
Apple tree Strifel needs a lot of space and sunlight.
Planting can be done both in spring and autumn. In the first case, it is necessary to plant as soon as the soil thaws (the sooner, the better), but before the buds swell. In central Russia, this is the beginning of April. In autumn, it is necessary that the wood of the Shtrifel saplings has time to ripen, and at least 30–40 days remain before the soil freezes. This is the period from late September to early October.
The choice of planting material
For planting, a 1-2-year-old seedling is purchased and leaves are removed from it. When purchasing, carefully inspect the root part. The roots should be healthy, well branched, not overdried, 30–35 cm long. Pay attention to whether the aerial part is sufficiently developed. Then inspect the vaccination site:
- whether it is completely covered with bark;
- how low the root collar is (at least 10 cm from the ground).
Based on bitter personal experience, I advise you not to purchase seedlings from machines, you will most likely be deceived. Do not be fooled by the cheapness of the goods, these seedlings cannot be completely cheap. Only buy the variety from nurseries or gardeners you trust.
Determination of the root collar
Do not confuse the grafting site with the root collar - the place where the root passes into the trunk. Wipe the stem with a damp cloth before planting, and you will easily find it. The neck must not be buried. As soon as the trunk is in the ground, it begins to dampen. The tree gradually decays, becomes lethargic, leaves leaves. You think it needs watering and you are doing the tree a disservice. Later, all metabolic processes are disrupted, the bark dies off and the apple tree dies.
Root collar - the place of transition of the root into the trunk
It happens that in the fall you acquire a weak seedling and are afraid that it will not withstand the coming winter; perhaps they have not decided on the place of its landing or have not prepared a landing pit. In these cases, it is best to dig a seedling for the winter, and plant it in a permanent place in the spring:
- Place the seedlings in the grooves for the winter ditch entirely, you can leave small ends of the branches outside.
- Cover the roots with a layer of earth 60–70 cm thick, and the trunk and branches 40 cm.
- Tie the branches into a bunch.
Choose a dry, flood-proof place, preferably on the southern slope. The ground should be loose. Do not add driftwood seedlings into compost or manure, which generate heat. The roots will begin to rot, mold and die.
So that the seedling is not damaged by rodents, you can cover the apple tree with spruce branches.
Until spring, you can save the seedling by digging it in the garden.
Before planting, if Strifel was stored in such a prikop, carefully release it and dip the root into a liquid clay mash:
- Put clay in a bucket of water, stir thoroughly and immerse your hand in it. The amount of clay should be such that a thin layer of clay remains on the hand pulled out of the bucket.
- Add a bag of Kornevin or another root growth stimulant (follow the instructions), as well as 1 kg of well-rotted manure.
- Dip the roots in the clay mixture for a few minutes, then dry the treated root outside for 30-40 minutes and start planting.
The root of the seedling in a shampoo of clay before planting
Step-by-step instructions for planting a seedling
Algorithm of actions for planting an apple tree:
- Dig a planting hole (80 cm deep, 70 cm in diameter) and drive in a peg to secure the tree.
- Pour a layer of fertile soil on the bottom (10 kg of compost, humus, mixed with soil in advance). Add well-rotted manure. Make the hill higher, otherwise, when the earth shrinks, the seedling will deeply deepen, which is unacceptable.
- Examine the root. Trim all dry, broken off, damaged areas to a healthy part.
- Place the tree so that the root collar is 7 cm above the ground level. You can put a shovel handle or a rail across the pit as a guide.
When planting a seedling, do not forget to leave the root collar above the surface of the ground.
- Fill the roots by 15 cm and pour 3 buckets of water into the pit. The soil will turn into slurry and fill all the voids around the root.
- Fill the hole with soil and do not water again. The earth will go down together with the seedling, and the root collar will be where it should be - at the level of the ground (it is permissible - 3-5 cm above the soil level).
To fill the voids near the root, the seedling is watered abundantly
- Tie the seedling to the peg with an eight. Fasten it tightly in a month, when the earth has completely settled.
A peg support will help the tree withstand the wind
- Be sure to mulch the soil around the seedling.
Cover young plants with spruce branches to prevent frost damage.
Video: planting an apple tree Shtrifel
Many gardeners do not recommend the introduction of mineral fertilizers into the planting pit due to the negative effect of chemicals on the development of young seedlings. There is confirmation of this. For example, the author of the newspaper Sayanskie vedomosti E.I. Piskunov in 2004 advised to dig holes so that only the roots entered and in no case add fertilizers there. Otherwise, the tree will hurt and die.
The household farm reported in 2003 that due to the fault of fertilizer introduced into the planting pits in the Novoaleksandrovsky state farm of the Stavropol Territory, the entire planted garden perished.
However, numerous textbooks and reference books have recommended for more than a century a complete set of mineral fertilizers and 2 buckets of humus per planting pit. It's up to you to choose. I don’t put in mineral fertilizers, because I don’t know the exact composition of the soil. What must be done is to mulch the soil with a 15-centimeter layer. Mulch will nourish the earth, protect against many diseases and prevent the soil from drying out, which is very important for Shtrifel.
Apple tree care must be systematic and meet the requirements of the variety.
The stem does not belong to drought-resistant varieties and is responsive to watering. In the spring, there is enough moisture in the soil and the plant does not need irrigation. It is necessary during the ripening of the fruit, from June to October. For a 2-year-old seedling, 40 liters of water under the root is enough, for an older tree - up to 80 liters, for Shtrifel after 20 years - up to 120 liters of water.
The stem is watered:
- during the growth of shoots and the formation of the ovary;
- 10 days before picking apples (do not watered just before ripening);
- after harvest (especially in hot summer);
- in October (if autumn is warm).
Summer sprinkling will be a useful procedure for Shtrifel. They bathe a tree in summer heat and warm autumn. Sprinkling begins in the evening, continues throughout the night and ends in the morning. After watering, the trunk circle is mulched with peat, needles, sawdust.
Summer sprinkling of the apple tree is especially necessary in hot weather.
How to feed
- In the first year, it is not worth feeding the seedlings, there is enough fertilizer laid in the planting pit.
- In the second year, urea (urea) is used as a top dressing. The seedling is fertilized in mid-May and June. Any kind of feeding is used: granules (per 1 m2 - 20 g of carbamide) or foliar feeding (prepare the solution according to the instructions).
- In the third year, young apple trees are fertilized: in May - with urea, in June - with nitrophosphate (for 10 liters of water - 4 tablespoons of the drug), in August - once again fed with superphosphate (2 tablespoons for 10 liters of water) and potassium salt. 3 buckets of solution are poured under the apple tree.
- In the same period, the use of organic matter is effective - a solution of mullein or chicken droppings: 0.5 liters of fresh droppings infused for 2 weeks are diluted in 10 liters of water. 3-4 buckets of top dressing are poured into the trunk circle, and then the soil is spilled with clean water.
Nitrogen fertilizing in August and autumn months is not used.
Fertilize the tree according to the instructions. Mineral salts are aggressive in large quantities, do not destroy the soil and trees.
Stimulating by pruning
The first two years, pruning is done in order to form the crown. The center conductor of the Shtrifel seedling is cut 15 cm above the main branches, shortening them by 1/3.
If you are an inexperienced gardener, buy a two-year-old. Nurseries sell such specimens with an already formed crown, and you do not have to do the first pruning. Formative pruning begins 2 years after the planting of the seedling and is carried out annually. Trees are formed in tiers (3–3-2 skeletal branches). The distance between the branches is 20 cm, between the tiers - 60 cm. The height of the trunk is 80 cm. The central conductor is cut at a height of 40 cm above the last skeletal branch.
Formative pruning of the apple tree must be carried out annually, keeping track of the number of branches
Pruning should be gentle. The branches of a young apple tree longer than 50 cm are shortened by 1/4 to stimulate the formation of shoots. It is important here to balance the branches in their development and subordinate them to the central vehicle. All other thickening branches located at an acute angle to the trunk, dry or growing inside the crown are removed.
Pruning a full-grown Strefel aims to support further growth and reduce excess fruit-bearing branches (if needed).
How to deal with diseases and pests
In early March, as soon as the sap flow begins, start processing the Shtrifel in order to prevent and control pests. We divide it into 3 stages:
- In mid-March — early April, we apply Bordeaux liquid, solutions of copper and iron sulfate (5%), or any broad-spectrum fungicides.
- The second time we spray the apple tree at the time of the swelling of the buds. Insects by this time are already fully armed, we meet them with insecticides:
- For the third time, spraying is done after flowering. Dangerous at this time are wood pests: scale insects, bark beetles, ticks. Caterpillars and beetles, aphids and moths adore green foliage and apples. We apply Zolon, Pyrimix. In the fight against ticks we use:
- colloidal sulfur solutions.
The Shtrifel apple variety is resistant to diseases such as scab, but not 100%. He also suffers from parasitic types of diseases, is strongly affected by fruit rot and powdery mildew. In relation to bacterial cancer, Strifel is weakly susceptible. The defeat by them ranges from 35 to 50%, develops in 20% of apple trees.
The complex of measures for the prevention of diseases, in addition to treatment with copper-containing and biological products, must include:
- removal from a tree and destruction of rotten fruits;
- protection of apples from damage during harvesting;
- autumn digging of near-trunk circles.
Whitewashing trunks and twigs is a good technique that protects the Shtrifel from frost, sunburn, and increases resistance to diseases. This is done in the fall (from October to November). It is whitewashed with chalk (2 kg per 10 l of water) with the addition of copper sulfate (100 g per 10 l of water), wood glue (20 g per 10 l) or clay (2 kg per 10 l).
Drying of the tops and individual branches of the apple tree is called dry top. The rod sometimes suffers from this disease.There is a proven recipe that says how you can revive a tree with a salt solution. It was popular at the beginning of the 20th century and was published by the Moscow publishing house Terra in 1996 in the Gardener's Obihodnaya Recipe, edited by P. Steinberg. Here it is:
Drill a hole along the radius of the tree trunk to the very core. A tube is inserted into the resulting hole, connected to the rubber tube of the Esmarch mug, filled with 1.5 liters of saline solution (1: 1). The mug is suspended at a height of one and a half meters. Gradually the wood absorbs the liquid. After a while, the apple tree begins to be covered with fresh foliage. More than one apple tree was saved in this way.
Apple-tree Shtrifel gives high yields, fruits delight with excellent taste, good winter hardiness, immunity to major diseases, simplicity of agricultural technology. This is a beautiful and grateful tree. It is responsive to caring for and taking care of it will repay you a hundredfold - with generous harvests of fragrant fresh apples.
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Folk apple tree Shtrifel
Even in the ancient Bible, the apple is described as a seductive fragrant fruit that has a beneficial effect on the human body.
Throughout history, man has cultivated the apple tree and tried to improve its taste.
One of the oldest and most popular varieties, known in our country, is the variety Shtrifel or Streyfling.
The people also call it - "Autumn striped". The history of the creation of the variety is not known for certain, but it is assumed that it came from Germany or Holland through the Baltic states. Given this fact, Shtrifel quite reasonably believe variety of folk selection.
Apple-tree Shtrifel is an old variety with autumn fruiting. The main advantages of the variety are excellent taste and high frost resistance.
An adult Shtrifel apple tree grows up to 8 m, forming a wide spreading crown. Without pruning, it takes on an unattractive appearance, does not let in the sun's rays, which reduces the quality and quantity of the crop. The crown is covered with large, gray-olive leaves, firmly sitting on reddish-brown petioles.
The apple tree Shtrifel has strong, thick branches that easily hold dense foliage and a large number of fruits.
Flowering occurs in early summer, forming large, beautiful snow-white pink flowers. After flowering, large fruits of a round-conical shape appear, weighing up to 80 g. The peel of apples is thin, but strong, covered with a waxy bloom. At technical maturity, apples turn greenish-brown speckled. Light yellow, juicy flesh is friable, when fully ripe it becomes reddish in color.
There are several subspecies of the variety, differing in yield and growing conditions. It all depends on which rootstock the seedling was grafted into.
- The dwarf rootstock is a small tree, it grows up to 1.5 m. The variety is frost-resistant, fruiting occurs at 3 years. The tree grows well and develops only on fertile soil.
- Semi-dwarf rootstock - apple tree reaches 2.5 m.The first harvest is removed 5 years after planting the seedling. An important difference is that despite the fact that the variety is autumn, the first fruits ripen in mid-August.
- Columnar - on such a rootstock, an apple tree grows in 1 trunk, almost without releasing semi-skeletal shoots. The growth of a columnar apple tree does not exceed 1.5 m, and the absence of a wide crown greatly facilitates the care and harvesting of apples. The harvest ripens early, up to 18 kg of juicy, sweet and sour fruits are removed from one apple tree.
Planting seedlings and caring for them for summer residents usually does not cause much difficulty, but for an apple tree Shtrifel, the place must be selected carefully, given that the plant is very powerful and spreading, does not like the cold wind, does not bear fruit in the shade. The tree loves black soil, but loamy soil is also suitable.
Advice! You can plant an apple tree a year or two in the fall, no later than a month before the freezing of the ground, and even better in spring - after the soil thaws, but the buds will not have time to open.
Soil is poured into a spacious hole at least 80 cm deep, dug in advance, by mixing it with organic matter and mineral fertilizers. An apple tree seedling is placed in it, without deepening the neck, but leaving it about 60–70 mm above the surface. The roots are covered with earth and watered abundantly, sprinkled with sawdust or peat in a layer of 15 to 18 cm. The tree is tied to a peg.
Apple tree care includes:
- crown formation
- sanitary and regulatory pruning.
When growing an autumn variety in a cold climate and in the middle lane, in the first years, a young tree is wrapped in pine needles before frost. You do not need to do this in the future.
The apple tree does not like drought and reacts positively to soil moisture, such a procedure is necessary in a warm and hot period. Young trees and seedlings of the Shtrifel variety are watered more often, fruiting apple trees must be watered:
- during the formation of the ovary
- 7-10 days before harvest
- after the end of work
- shortly before wintering.
In the hot summer months, sprinkler irrigation is used, including installation overnight.
Important! The tree is demanding on moisture, even a seedling needs at least 4 buckets for one watering, a fruiting plant - from 8 to 12.
A tree of the Shtrifel variety begins to be fed after a year. In late spring and early summer, urea is added. The same substance is used for foliar feeding by spraying the apple tree with a solution.
The next year, urea is used, and in June, a composition prepared from a bucket of water and 4 liters of nitroamofoska is poured under the tree. In the last month of summer, the apple tree is fed with potassium salt and superphosphate, and organic matter is introduced in the form of chicken droppings.
Some gardeners sow green manures in the root circle of an adult tree. Clover, nasturtium, bent grass loosen the ground, retain moisture, prevent the development of apple chlorosis, and reduce the amount of salts in the soil.
For seedlings of the Shrifel variety, 2 or 3 years old, they form a crown. To do this, the central trunk is shortened so that it was 15 cm higher than the main shoots, the length of which is reduced by a third. Apple trees of the Shtrifel variety are formed in tiers, between which they leave 60 cm. They consist of 2 or 3 skeletal branches. Dry shoots and those that are located at an acute angle to the trunk are removed.
If the tree is cut correctly, the crown does not thicken, the formation of new branches is stimulated. On a young apple tree, the growths are shortened, the length of which exceeds 0.5 m. The rejuvenation of the old tree and the formation of the crown of the seedling is carried out at the end of March. Pruning an apple tree in summer can only be sanitary when it becomes necessary to get rid of dry branches.
Protection against diseases and pests
The Shtrifel variety is not immune to fungal and viral infections. To prevent infection of trees, at the very beginning of spring, apple trees are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid or iron vitriol.
The second processing of the Autumn striped variety is resorted to when the buds swell. For this purpose, fungicides are used in the form of preparations "Ditox", "Aktotsid".
The Shtrifel variety, like other fruit trees, attract bark beetles, scale insects, ticks, caterpillars eat leaves with pleasure, moths damage the ovary and fruits. To cope with these pests, after flowering has fallen, the plants are sprayed with insecticides such as Nitrafen and Iskra.
In addition to treating apple trees with chemicals, for the prevention of diseases:
- Mummified and rotten fruits are removed from the trees.
- In the fall, they dig up the ground in the trunk circle.
- Cut off shoots, remove dried branches.
Attention! Whitewashing with a solution prepared from chalk, clay and copper sulfate helps protect the tree from frost and burns, prevent trunk diseases.
Despite the abundance of varieties, the Shtrifel apple tree is grown by many gardeners in regions with a temperate climate. Subject to the rules of care, the tree rewards with a harvest of apples, the taste of which cannot be forgotten.
The oldest recognized apple variety, Autumn Striped, is still common in apple connoisseurs' orchards. For many their special spicy taste is the taste of childhood.
Easy care and patience - everything you need to get impressive yields of aromatic juicy apples. And the fact that you need to grow this apple tree, you have proven the photo and description of the variety above.