Abyssinian well: do-it-yourself needle well device
The issue of water supply to a suburban area must be resolved, otherwise it is not even necessary to talk about minimal comfort. If water is needed and the budget is limited, it's time to remember about the low-cost technical structure available to most summer residents. Moreover, the technology with which you can install an Abyssinian well with your own hands is not particularly difficult. Such a well or a needle well, as it is also called, was invented by the Americans back in the 19th century, and got its exotic name after the British began to use it in Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Necessary geological conditions
Initially, the Abyssinian well was a shallow well with a hand pump that pumps water from a sandy aquifer. This one differs from an ordinary well in that the water in it is very clean. It is not clogged with dirt, drains, spores and overhead water. Having first appeared in Russia in the 19th century, this building is still a success.
However, before you start implementing your plans, you need to inquire about the geology of your area. As a rule, neighbors who have long owned plots nearby are aware of the location of the soil layers and the depth of the aquifers. They have already made their own choice in favor of a well or a well.
You can find out which is better - a well or a well from the material: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/chto-luchshe-skvazhina-ili-kolodec.html
The choice of a structure that is used as the optimal source of water on the site largely depends on the geology of the area.
It is possible to start the construction of the Abyssinian well only if the upper aquifer is located no deeper than 8 m from the soil surface. At greater depths, lifting water with a surface pump can be problematic. If the aquifer is lower, a hole should be drilled into the sand of a larger diameter or the pump should be buried.
The aquifer that the well will target should be of medium-grained sand or a mixture of gravel and sand. Water can flow freely through such soil, so it will not be difficult to pump it out. The layers located above the water carrier are of interest to us only in terms of their permeability. And the tool that will be used in the work will not be able to break through deposits from boulders and pebbles, or hard rocky layers. To carry out such drilling operations, special equipment is required.
The material on how to find water on the site will also be useful: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/kak-najti-vodu-dlya-skvazhiny.html
The advantages of this type of water supply
The likelihood that an Abyssinian well can be built on your site is very high if your neighbors in the country already have such wells.
One of the significant advantages of the Abyssinian well is that it can be built both on the site and in the house.
The advantages of such a structure can hardly be overestimated:
- the design is simple and inexpensive;
- to equip this well does not need a lot of space: the construction does not violate the integrity of the landscape;
- no equipment or access roads are needed for her arrival;
- the pump can be mounted both on site and indoors;
- the whole work will take no more than 10 hours: it all depends on the depth of the water carrier and the hardness of the soil;
- a high-quality filter prevents silting, which allows the structure to be operated for a long time;
- contamination from the surface of the earth does not enter the well;
- the quality of water from such a well is comparable to that of a spring;
- the needle well provides a continuous supply of water, which is enough both for irrigating the site and for household needs: the debit of an average well is approximately 0.5-3 cubic meters / hour;
- the device can be easily dismantled and installed elsewhere.
Abyssinian wells are not as deep as traditional sand wells, so the likelihood of dissolved iron getting into them is reduced. This means that there is no need for expensive filters when using them.
An Abyssinian well raises water from an aquifer that is deep enough to ensure the normal operation of any plumbing and watering the site
How to carry out work without special equipment?
An Abyssinian well can be easily made using special equipment. But buying such mechanisms specifically for a single well is unprofitable, and inviting specialists is expensive. The construction of the needle well can be done by hand and using only the tool that is already available or can be purchased inexpensively.
Preparation of the necessary tools and material
The kit for the Abyssinian well includes:
- drill and grinder;
- hammer and sledgehammer;
- a pair of gas keys;
- to clog the pipe, you need pancakes from the bar for 20-40 kg;
- welding machine;
- garden drill 15 cm in diameter;
- pipes: ½ inch, 3-10 meters long, ¾ inch - 1 meter;
- a 1-inch pipe for a well, which should be cut into pieces of 1-1.5 m and have a short thread on each side;
- nuts and bolts 10;
- stainless steel mesh braid P48 16 cm wide and 1 m long;
- clamps automobile 32 sizes;
- couplings: cast iron 3-4 pcs. to hammer pipes, as well as steel to connect pipes;
- two meters of wire 0.2-0.3 mm in diameter;
- non-return valve, HDPE pipes and couplings, pumping station.
In any city there is a market or a hardware store where you can cut threads and purchase all these materials and tools.
The filter requires an 1-inch tube, approximately 110 cm long, to which a cone-shaped tip is welded. This tip is called the Abyssinian well needle. If not, you can simply flatten the end of the pipe with a sledgehammer. Using a grinder on both sides of the pipe, we cut slots for 80 cm through 1.5-2 cm, about 2-2.5 cm long. It is important that the overall strength of the pipe is not compromised. We wind the wire onto the pipe, then put a mesh on it and fix it with clamps after about 8-10 cm. The mesh can be soldered if you have certain skills.
In America, for example, a filter for an Abyssinian well is made with an inner mesh and a wire that is located above and below the mesh.
It is important to know that lead solders should not be used to prevent toxic substances from entering the water. For work, only special flux and tin solder are used.
We drill the soil with a garden drill, building it up with a pipe structure. To do this, meter ½ "pipes are connected with couplings from pipes with a diameter of ¾" and bolts by 10. Holes must be pre-drilled in the attachment points. The drilling process continues until wet sand appears, which will drain into the surface of the drill. Everything, further drilling is pointless, because wet sand will go back into the well.
We clog a pipe with a filter
We connect the pipe sections with the filter using couplings, not forgetting to screw the FUM tape onto the thread. The resulting structure of pipes with a filter is lowered to the sand, and a cast iron coupling is screwed onto it from above. Pancakes from the bar are placed on the cast-iron coupling. An axis is passed through their center, along which the pancakes will slide, clogging the pipe. The axle consists of a 1.5 meter piece of ½ inch diameter pipe and a bolt on the end.
The finished well, the needle does not take up much space and does not spoil the appearance of the site: if desired, it can be decorated with a canopy, it is very desirable to build a concrete platform around it
With each blow of the pancake, the pipe should sink a few centimeters. When half a meter from the sand level has been passed, you can try to pour some water into the pipe. If the water disappears, then the sand has accepted it. The aquifer of sand is able to absorb water at the same rate as it gives it away.
Pumping a finished well
We install a check valve, then a pumping station. We use HDPE pipes and make sure that the entire structure is airtight. We pour water into the alluvial station, and connect a piece of hose to the outlet. The pump can be started. Do not be alarmed when air comes out of the well, and then cloudy water. It should be so. Clean water will soon appear, the quality of which can be verified by making an analysis or simply boiling it.
You can supply water from the skavzhina to a private house, read about this: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/kak-podvesti-vodu-v-chastnyj-dom.html
This is what an Abyssinian well looks like if it was installed in the garden and equipped with a hand pump: the summer resident no longer depends on the watering time set by SNT
There should be no sewage ditches or manure pits near the place of active water intake. A small concrete pad, which is built around the well and located just above the soil surface, will allow the rainwater to drain.
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Well do it yourself without equipment: the principle of the device
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A budget option for the manufacture of an autonomous source of water supply is a do-it-yourself well without equipment using several existing technologies. This refers to ways to do without renting a drilling rig. However, some equipment and tools are still required by the DIYer.
Making a well without equipment with your own hands
Brief description of the Abyssinian well
An Abyssinian well is a device for water extraction, which can be built on the site on its own without the involvement of qualified specialists and special equipment. This technology of construction for water extraction was invented and first put into practice in the 19th century by the British engineer Norton. Therefore, such a structure is called “Norton's well”. In the literature and Internet sources, the concept of wellpoint is also used, thereby emphasizing the design features of the device and the method of constructing a well. The wellpoint is driven into the ground wherever possible, ensuring the supply of water from the well as soon as possible.
- the possibility of building a well on your own from improvised means
- simplicity of design, ease and speed of manufacture
- the possibility of obtaining good quality water
- low cost of a well
- long service life of the device.
- difficulty or impossibility of building a well in difficult, heavy soils: stone, clay, etc.
- limiting the rise of water from a depth of no more than 10-15 m
Applications and requirements for the construction of an Abyssinian well
The depth of the well is determined based on the needs:
- to provide household needs with low quality water, it is enough to extract water from a depth of 5-7 m
- to meet domestic needs with good quality water, water should be extracted at a depth of 8-10 m
- for the full provision of water for all needs with the possibility of obtaining high quality drinking water, water should be obtained from a depth of 10-15 m and more.
Recommendations for the location of the well on the site:
- the distance between the well and the septic tank, drain pit or other place of possible contamination is at least 8-10 m
- groundwater and rainwater runoff should not flow directly into the borehole.
- The purpose of a well is determined not only by its depth, but also by the characteristics of the water source in the area: flow rate, resource, water quality, etc.
- When constructing wells with a depth of up to 5 m, the law does not require a permit for construction.
Do-it-yourself Abyssinian well - technology, diagrams, instructions!
Today, water supply is a significant problem in suburban construction. This is due to the fact that the supply of water from the central highway is a complex and expensive process.
An alternative option is to dig a well, which requires significant labor and special permission. Some time ago, drilling of Abyssinian wells began to be widely used on the territory of the Russian Federation.
This is a simple and effective solution to the problem of water supply in the house.
So what is an Abyssinian well? During the colonial wars, the Abyssinian operation was carried out by British troops. Military action in the desert was hampered by problems with water supplies. Then the British began to use the Norton drill, which is a drill underneath to extract water. The colonialists were able to advance into the desert regions and completed their tasks. After that, the rumor about Abyssinian wells spread throughout all countries, and the original name "Nortonian" was forgotten.
Two decades later, the drilling of the Abyssinian well was tested in Russia. The work was carried out by unskilled workers who made five wells.
Drinking water was obtained in only three of them, and the average filling rate was approximately one and a half buckets per minute. Typically, the aquifer was located at a depth of 4 to 10 meters.
Sometimes the drill got stuck in a layer of limestone, which took another 30 minutes to extract.
Famous scientists have studied Abyssinian wells, which, according to them, are an excellent option for water supply to this day. After analyzing all the data, it became clear that digging a well is justified only when, due to geological conditions, it is impossible to drill an Abyssinian well.
The main advantages of the application
Drilling an Abyssinian well with your own hands has so many advantages that it is not enough to just list them. Let's substantiate the main pros and cons.
Low cash costs for the device
The maximum cost of a turnkey installation is rarely higher than 25 thousand rubles. The average price is 14 thousand rubles, and the equipment can be bought for 5 thousand. In comparison with a well device, this is a very economical option.
An Abyssinian well with your own hands, along with all materials and mechanisms, will approximately cost 10 thousand rubles. It does not require the use of high quality materials. All work can be done with your own hands from scrap materials.
Fast and easy development
This procedure does not require the use of a rig or tripod. No need for hole plugging, electric drive and drilling mud. According to statistics, fluctuations in the depth of aquifers can range from 2 to 15 meters. No professional knowledge required. In almost one hundred percent of cases, two healthy men are enough - the water is ready in a day, and sometimes in a few hours.
If you do not deviate from the technological process and correctly drive the well into the sand, then the possibility of groundwater penetration to the water intake is completely excluded. A driven Abyssinian well in urban environs can produce water that is not much different from artesian water.
Full compliance with sanitary standards
There are no strict sanitary requirements. You can clog the well directly from the basement. With this embodiment, the work is facilitated, and their cost becomes less. The well does not freeze in winter, so there is no need for a pit - artificial deepening into the ground.
Long service life
Wells clogged many years ago by the British to this day provide water without interruption and do not require special care. The thirty-year service life indicated in many sources is not the maximum.In fact, the well will function until the water runs out.
Does not require registration and special permissions
For an Abyssinian well, you do not need to issue permits. This is a significant plus.
According to the law of the Russian Federation, the owner of the land has the right to extract minerals by open pit mining to a depth of five meters and to develop water wells to the very first layer, which contains water. That is, it is no longer possible to extract artesian water. Those who are not too trusting can double-check this information themselves.
Norton's projectile structure
An Abyssinian well means an igloo well. The immersion takes place by the percussion drilling method.
Professionals rarely use this method of water extraction due to the fact that it is almost impossible to get a barbell at a shallow depth. The maximum development depth is a couple of tens of meters.
If the main goal is to drive up to the first aquifer, the needle borehole is the best option, due to the ease of installation, economic benefits and efficiency. A well for water has an additional name - "tubular well".
Installation under an Abyssinian well in the country consists of the following elements:
- Metal grid
Drilling technology can be exploratory or confident. In the first case, you should think about purchasing special factory equipment, which approximately costs 7 thousand rubles. The tubular drill and string can be used many times. For example, if the first well is unsuitable, you can dismantle it and drill the second one.
When there is a well made within the limit of 50 meters, then the equipment can be made with your own hands from scrap materials. The drilling process using the percussion-rope method requires a certain physical strength, but the technology is simple:
- The projectile is being installed in the pit. It can also be suspended on a tripod or driven into the ground.
- The first bar is arranged, on which the cap, the woman and the upper clamp are put on. The latter must be tightened securely.
- Ropes are threaded into the pulleys that pull the woman until the very top is reached. Then the ropes are released and the action is repeated.
- Depending on the deepening, the clamps are rearranged, and the column is extended with other rods.
What mechanism should be drilled?
A set of equipment to drill an Abyssinian well with your own hands can be made from scrap materials. The main thing is to find pipes, the length of which should be one and a half dozen meters, and the diameter - 80 millimeters.
This will be needed if the scheme involves the use of submersible pumps.
Standard submersible pumps cannot be less than three inches. If there is a need to raise water to a height of more than 7 meters, it is necessary to use top vacuum pumps (one is sufficient). Then it is allowed to use any pipes that should not bend during development.
Since the rules for installing a drill was mentioned above, we will clarify how to correctly select the drill string and rods. The outside diameter of the pipe is always indicated here. However, when referring to caliber, the inner diameter is implied. Devices that are lowered into the pipe are always counted on the outside.
When professional drilling of Abyssinian wells is performed, the rods are factory-joined with couplings. In the future, they can be removed and dismembered the column. But for one-time development, the couplings can be replaced with welded tubular cuttings of a larger caliber. The rods are collected with their skirts upward, as there is a possibility of the needle snagging or getting into the ground.
When the equipment breaks down during the drilling process, and the string comes apart, you should leave everything in the soil and make a new drill with rods. Therefore, the drilling of an Abyssinian well for water with home-made equipment is performed only in the case of one hundred percent confidence in the presence of water.
Where is water available?
How to choose the right place to drill? The main indicator is the presence of vegetation. You need to know the list of moisture-loving plants and look for them in your area. These include:
The most optimal indicator of the presence of moisture is already existing natural springs and wells in neighboring areas. If they are close, you will most likely find what you are looking for.
How to make an Abyssinian well and guess with the depth of the first aquifer? This parameter is determined by a special device - aneroid barometer.
As altitude changes, atmospheric pressure changes. The device works according to this principle. From the pressure shown, the depth of the water can be determined. In most cases, the height of water rise is rarely more than 7 meters.
The construction of the Abyssinian well is prohibited in ravines, cliffs and steep slopes. This is due to the possibility of disrupting natural drainage, which can lead to landslides. In addition, it is prohibited to drill:
- at a distance of less than 15 meters from the place where pets are kept
- closer than 300 meters from a cemetery or farm
- at a distance of less than 3.5 kilometers from the chemical production, secret facilities and sewerage basins.
The properties of the soil are not disturbed when drilling an Abyssinian well.
Well made of other materials
In addition to the standard design, you can make an Abyssinian well with your own hands from plastic pipes. It is in no way inferior to the iron version, and in some moments even surpasses it.
An Abyssinian well made of plastic pipes has the following advantages:
- ease of installation (the whole process takes only a few hours)
- the possibility of installing a needle in a basement, garage or other utility room
- high performance parameters
- high quality water source
- long service life
- economically beneficial.
In some cases, a pump may be required. So how do you choose the right one? The pumps are lightweight and quiet. One of the main conditions for choosing is power, which should provide the required head. The price for them ranges from 4 to 15 thousand rubles. The pump for the Abyssinian well must be from a trusted manufacturer (sometimes called a pump).
Drinking water is the most important resource on the planet. In this article, we examined what an Abyssinian well is and what the technology of its device is. It should be noted that such drilling is prohibited in other countries. The do-it-yourself well is gaining popularity, which will lead to government regulation of this issue. Therefore, as long as it is allowed, it is better not to waste a moment.
Abyssinian well: do-it-yourself water well drilling, pros and cons
In the absence of a centralized water supply system, summer residents decide on the manufacture of an individual method of water supply. A simple and reliable option to solve this problem is to manufacture an Abyssinian well. Significantly reduces the cost of this task - an independent process.
What it is?
This is a compact source that allows you to provide a country house with water with a minimum budget and effort. For its manufacture, there is no need to rent large-scale special equipment. Plus, all year round, the Abyssinian water well will provide you with the required volume.
Consider the reasons for making it:
- You will be able to receive water from a shallow depth (up to 20 m).
- The device is located in a relatively small area.
- It is possible to drill in a garage, inside a residential building and similar premises.
- Financial investments are minimal.
Pros and cons
In the case of high productivity, the well-needle has some pros and cons. Among the disadvantages are:
- Depth restrictions. At a distance of more than 9 m, it will be necessary to deepen the pump, and this is a laborious and complex process.
- If it is not operated for a long time, the well or well will need to be cleaned. Pumping an Abyssinian woman is a very time-consuming business. The reason for this is the small diameter of the pipe.
- Drilling takes place with minimal labor costs.
- The supplied liquid is 90% drinkable. You don't have to install a complex filtration system.
- Ease of production of borehole needles in the house or in the country.
- The minimum set of equipment that does not require special equipment for its transportation.
- The possibility of the device at car washes, since the well flow rate is up to 500 l / h. Productivity - up to 60 l / h.
- There is no need to pay for expensive specialist services.
- There is no need for a drilling license.
- The lowest cost of the entire installation.
- Long service life.
Principle of operation and device
The Abyssinian is made from a pipe no more than 1ʺ, up to 30 m deep. On the lower pipe there is a filter consisting of a grid of small cells and perforations. The pump is attached at the top.
To drill a hole, small-sized equipment is used, 1.5 × 1.5 m wide, and up to 2.5 m high. To raise the liquid, it is recommended to use a self-priming pump that is connected directly to the needle. A vacuum is created and the water rises. The water quality is 90% high, as it is naturally filtered through gravel and sand.
Interesting to know: drilling an Abyssinian well allows you to get a fluid with a favorable mineral composition. It contains no metals, salts and other compounds harmful to the body.
Before we look at the step-by-step construction process, we find out:
- What tool is needed for this.
- How deep to drill.
To work, you will need the following tools:
- gas wrench
- welding machine
You will also need consumable equipment:
- fine mesh metal mesh
- threaded pipe on both sides
- garden drill
- check valve.
The pipes must be made of stainless steel. The recommended diameter is 1 inch.
Important: copper is not suitable. Firstly, they are too soft, and secondly, copper gives free ions to the liquid, which poisons it. Be careful with plastic and polypropylene pipes.
- At the bottom of the pipe there should be a water intake with a filter.
- Perforation up to 1 m is made. Hole diameter - 10 mm.
- The distance between them should be about 50 mm.
- A fine mesh is wound in place of the perforation made. It is recommended to use stainless steel material. It should be taut on the pipe and soldered on all sides.
Advice: For soldering, it is recommended to use food grade solder with minimal or no lead.
Additionally, a pointed tip is soldered. It will not be difficult for them to hammer the needle. Its length is in the region of 15–20 mm. The rest of the stainless steel pipes at both ends must have tapped threads to connect them to each other with thick-walled couplings.
To drive the pipe into the soil safely and reliably, a drive end is made. It must have an internal thread. By means of her, the tip, on which the blows are carried out, is screwed to the pipe. In addition to the sledgehammer, you can use the "grandma" device.
By this is meant a metal cylinder having an opening that is smaller than the diameter of the pipe. The impact surface is tapered. At the bottom, there must be a place for the fixing ring to prevent skewing. To make the "headstock" easy to lift, it has handles.
Before pumping the source, some use a hand pump. After that, the station is assembled. Plus, a caisson is being set up. It should be below the level of freezing of the ground in winter.
Aneroid barometer is used to determine the depth. Its reading is 1.05 MPa, or 760 mm. rt. Art., correspond to 10332 meters of water column. Using this device, you can determine the estimated depth.
How to do it yourself?
Now we will take a step-by-step look at the whole process of work with you:
- First of all, soil up to 300 mm thick is removed. If drilling takes place in the house, then there is no need to remove the soil layer. If the soil is very dry, then it can be slightly moistened.
- Using a garden drill, make a small hole in the ground.
- Install the pipe vertically into the resulting well. It should have a pointed tip.
- To protect the upper thread, screw on the prepared ferrule. It must be made of carbide material.
- Additionally, a tripod is installed, through which drilling is carried out.
- On top of the tip you put on the "grandma". The weight of this structure can be up to 25 kg. Due to this, the pipe will gradually go into the ground. The sinking rate of the pipe directly depends on the density of the soil. If it is sandy, then it is enough to inflict about 7 blows, and the meter of the pipe will be completely in the ground.
- When it is almost completely immersed in the ground, the locking ring is removed and the second is screwed with a threaded connection. It is important to ensure that the connection is absolutely leakproof.
- Further, the driving procedure continues in the same order.
- Once you have reached the intended depth, water must be added to the inside of the pipe every 0.5 meters. If the tip filter has reached the aquifer, the liquid in the pipe will quickly drain.
Advice: if it was not possible to find out the level of occurrence of the aquifer, then it is necessary to add water starting from four meters.
Once you have reached the aquifer, the needle is clogged half a meter and a pump is attached to it on top.
To pump the source for the first time, you can do without the main equipment, for example, a hand pump is installed. At first, a cloudy liquid will go.
After pumping several hundred liters of water, clean water should flow. At the end, the well is completed and equipment is installed for the Abyssinian well.
The choice of a place for arranging the source is determined based on the characteristics of your site. So, the depth of the groundwater is taken into account.
For the Abyssinian, the limit stops at 7–8 meters. The choice is also influenced by the quality of the liquid. This source is located in a hazardous location, where hazardous waste is sometimes infiltrated.
Therefore, there should be no sewage pits, farms and the like nearby.
Advice: For safety reasons, it is recommended that the obtained water be taken to the appropriate authority for analysis.
It is good if the selected place has soft soil. If possible, it is better to immerse the igloo inside the house, because this place is protected from heavy rainfall.
To ensure the presence of liquid, springs, springs, wells and other sources must be present in your area in a half-kilometer district. Focus on the growth of moisture-loving plants, such as coltsfoot, burdock, reed, nettle.
Where is it forbidden to drill?
It is not recommended to hammer the needle on slopes, cliffs. These actions can provoke landslides. It is not allowed to drill near the poultry house, barn, compost pit and similar structures, the distance should be from 15 m. It is also unacceptable to drill closer than 300 meters from the cemetery, poultry farms. There should be a distance of 3.5 km from the city dump.
Checking for water availability
Having identified a place with good drinking water, you need to find out its volume. If you install an Abyssinian well on quicksand, then there is a risk of getting a small amount of liquid. This is checked with the help of manners. She descends on a cord into the mine.
Water quality - GOSTs and SNiPs
During initial pumping, the liquid will be cloudy.Depending on the condition of the soil, potable water will flow after a day. When it comes to the quality of liquids from various sources, you need to be guided by GOSTs, for example 2874, 24902, 17.1.3.03 and others. There are also norms, for example SNiP 4630.
If you are satisfied with the quality and volume of water, it is necessary to arrange the caisson. This is required for the normal functionality of the installed pump and the well itself. Its manufacture is carried out in the following sequence:
- Near the needle, you go deeper to a depth below the freezing level of the ground.
- Sanding is carried out from 5 to 10 cm.
- Reinforcement mesh is placed on top.
- The bottom is filled with mortar.
Useful: a caisson is not needed if the pumping equipment can be installed inside the house.
To raise water from a depth of 7–8 meters, you will need to purchase a pumping station. To install it, electricity is supplied to the caisson. A household pumping station will provide you with a flow rate of up to 20 l / min, with a head of up to 45 meters.
For long-term operation of the source, you need to constantly maintain it. It will last you longer if you use it all year round. If not, water is drained from the supply pipe for winter storage. The pump must be covered and insulated, even if you insulated the caisson well. Before starting operation in the spring, the well should also be cleaned and pumped.
You learned what an Abyssinian well is and how it is properly equipped. We hope that this material helped you to understand the essence of this issue, and in conclusion we suggest that you consolidate the stated theory by watching the prepared video material.