Correct planting of cabbage in open ground
One of the main conditions for planting many vegetable crops in open ground is good lighting. Cabbage is no exception. However, intense sunlight can damage the plant, resulting in burns on the leaves. There is only one way out - you need to find a place with partial shading.
Can cabbage be planted in the shade?
To ensure normal growing conditions, it is advisable to find out which crops will thrive in the shade. For example, cabbage, white cabbage or cauliflower, unlike corn and eggplant, feels great in shade under fruit trees when it comes to southern regions. And the plant reacts positively to low temperatures. Seedlings make their way to the surface of the soil with an indicator of only + 3 ° С, although the best development of shoots occurs at + 20 ° С... But the temperature above +25 degrees negatively affects the yield and quality of the fruits, the lower leaves fall off, and the tissues of the upper ones become very dense. Therefore, partial shade is considered a necessity at a stable high temperature. In temperate climates, it is necessary to plant in areas open to sunlight; in the shade, the plant spends a lot of energy on development, which manifests itself in a slight inhibition of growth.
Where is the best place to plant?
It is better to plan a bed for cabbage at the place where cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes, onions, and legumes were grown last season. And after beets, turnips and radishes, you should not plant cabbage seedlings. As neighbors, she loves legumes (peas, beans), tomatoes, beets, onions, garlic. It is recommended to arrange the beds from east to west, a small shadow is allowed.
The soil should be fertile, but not dense, the best results are noted when cultivating a vegetable on loam and clay soils.
The most popular varieties, sowing dates
The selection of cabbage seedlings is quite large, but there are time-tested varieties that are distinguished by good yields and resistance to adverse weather conditions, especially in early spring. The leaders in popularity are:
- Glory - average ripening times, head weight from 2 to 4.5 kg, diameter about 25 cm, yield from 1 m2 is up to 12 kg;
- Moscow late - ripening period up to 150 days, average fruit weight 7 kg, yield from 1 m2 up to 15 kg;
- June - ripens in 90-120 days, head weight is on average 2.5 kg, yield is 7 kg per 1 m2;
- Present - heads of cabbage ripen in 120-135 days, the average weight of the head is up to 3.5 kg, the yield from 1 m2 is up to 10 kg;
- Amager - ripening period up to 140 days, the average weight of the head is 3-3.5 kg, from 1 m2 up to 7 kg of crop are removed.
Open ground planting rules
The laying of the future harvest is done by the correct planting. When performing work, it is worth considering the main factors affecting the vegetation of the plant and fruiting.
The right choice of seedlings
For planting in open ground, seedlings are selected that have reached 12-20 cm in height with 5-7 leaves formed. Seedlings usually reach these parameters by early May (early varieties) if sown at the end of March. It is not difficult to grow seedlings yourself, the main thing is to provide a temperature regime and good lighting (at least 12-15 hours a day).
When buying cabbage seedlings, you should give preference to shoots with a well-developed root system.
What kind of soil does a vegetable like
A plot for a garden bed is chosen taking into account the rules of crop rotation and proximity to other crops. Preparations begin in the fall. First, they do a thorough cleaning, removing plant residues from the soil, then fertilizer (organic matter or minerals) is introduced, and at the same time they dig up the earth to a depth of at least a shovel bayonet. As soon as the snow melts, the future bed must be sealed so that the moisture does not evaporate quickly. For this, the soil is leveled with a rake (harrowing).
Cabbage does not grow well on acidic soils, so you need to examine the soil for an acidic level. This can be done using litmus paper. If necessary, the soil is neutralized with dolomite flour or crushed lime.
Immediately before sowing, the bed is dug up and harrowed again.
Disembarkation, time, scheme and distances
Before planting, the roots of the seedlings are recommended to be treated with a talker, which is made from water, clay and mullein. The resulting layer between the root system and the soil will protect against decay. In addition, it contributes to the rapid survival of seedlings in a new place.
Deep holes are prepared for each root. An additional cavity is necessary for filling the mixture, which includes:
- 500 gr. humus (compost);
- 1 tsp superphosphate (nitrophosphate);
- Art. wood ash.
All components are mixed thoroughly with the soil and poured into the prepared wells, after which they are watered with water. The seedlings are buried in the ground to the first true leaf. When planting, the roots should be well pressed with earth so that after watering or rain, the plant does not wash out of the soil. Distances and hole layout:
- early varieties - 50-60 cm between rows, 30-35 in a row;
- mid-season and late varieties - 60-70 cm between rows, 50-60 cm in a row.
Some varieties require more space, such as Moscow late 15, which is planted in a 70x70 cm pattern.
After planting cabbage beds, it is advisable to mulch with a mixture of peat and humus or one of the components (layer thickness 1-2 cm). The work is best done in the evening or in cloudy weather.
Early maturing varieties are planted depending on the climatic characteristics of the region, in the middle lane this is the beginning of May, in the south - the end of March, beginning of April. After the early variety, a late variety is planted, and only then are they taken for mid-season cabbage. Late ripening is associated with a longer formation of the head of cabbage, therefore, in the end, this type of seedling cannot be left.
Care after landing
From the first day after disembarkation, you can start looking after the beds.
Watering, without it nothing will grow
Cabbage is demanding on moisture, so the watering regime should be strictly observed. Irrigation is carried out at intervals of 4-6 days in the evening or in cloudy weather... If you water the plants in a sultry heat, the seedlings will wither from the scorching sun's rays. At a stable high temperature, the regularity of watering should be increased up to 1 time in 2-3 days.
After irrigation, it is recommended to loosen the soil to prevent compaction. So the roots will be more comfortable to develop. It is better to mulch the surface of the beds, so the moisture in the soil will remain longer, and the growth of weeds will not be as intense. The layer of peat mulch is 5 cm.
Top dressing for the sake of the harvest
When the leaves of the transplanted seedlings grow, the soil is fed with a solution of ammonium nitrate (10 grams of funds per bucket of water). At the stage of leaf formation, feed is introduced into the head of cabbage: 4 g per bucket of water. urea, 8 gr. potassium sulfate and 5 gr. double superphosphate.
Weeding and loosening
During the season, about 3-4 weeding and the same amount of loosening are carried out. It is better to combine this work and carry it out after watering, when the soil softens, and the risk of breaking a young shoot is reduced to zero.
So that the weeds do not bother with their presence, it is recommended to cover the cleaned beds with a layer of peat or humus.
After planting the seedlings, the beds are dusted with wood ash. It prevents flea and slug infestation on the plant. The effect of processing will increase if tobacco dust is added to the ash.
From other no less dangerous pests, cabbage will be saved by spraying procedures from an infusion of onion peels, tomato tops, a solution based on tar soap.
Undoubtedly, diseases and pests are the main enemies of the crop, but mistakes made by inexperienced gardeners when planting cabbage can also affect it. Among the typical are the following.
- Cabbage will be of poor quality (practically without a head of cabbage) if planted in the shade, where there is no sun at all. Planting near tall crops is allowed only with partial shading.
- Novice gardeners begin planting in unprepared soil. You can't get a good harvest if you don't first enrich the soil with organic matter and minerals. Cabbage reacts very positively to organic fertilizers, which are introduced during the preparation of the garden and with regular feeding.
- For sowing, you cannot use all seeds in a row. Sowing should only be sorted and processed. This will increase germination and strengthen the immunity of young shoots.
- When growing seedlings, some gardeners use small cups. It is almost impossible to create drainage in such a container, and the root system will develop closely. To get strong seedlings, it is recommended to use peat or plastic pots with a volume of at least 250 ml for 2-3 grains.
- Often, when transplanting seedlings into open ground, there is a long period of survival in a new place. This error most likely signals a violated disembarkation date. It is worth completing the work a couple of weeks earlier, or later, the leaves on the shoot begin to fade and even wither. The recovery period of the plant is delayed, and with it the development of cabbage.
When sowing seeds, you should pay attention to the depth of their immersion in the soil. When germinating from deep grooves, the plant spends all its strength, as a result of which a weak seedling is obtained, prone to diseases.
Growing vegetables on your own plot is an exciting activity, which gives you the opportunity to accumulate your own experience. However, you should not experiment with the rules of care, otherwise you may be left without a crop.
Rules for planting late cabbage in open ground
Growing late cabbage is a rather laborious process. This cold-hardy garden crop is very demanding to care for. To obtain a good and high-quality harvest, plantings require a lot of moisture and light. In cultivation, the correct planting of late cabbage is also important.
- Features of culture
- Soil preparation
- Planting seedlings in open ground
- Care features
- Moistening the soil
- Loosening and weeding
Rules for planting late cabbage in open ground
Preparing seedlings for planting
Before planting seedlings in open ground, it must be properly prepared. This process consists of several procedures. First of all, the regulation of watering, feeding and hardening:
- stop watering a week before planting. Just before planting, about 2 hours, water abundantly
- 2 weeks before planting, feed with mineral fertilizers - dissolve a tablespoon of urea and potassium sulfate in ten liters of water, pour 150 grams per plant
- 15–20 days before disembarkation, start hardening - take out into the open air at a temperature of + 5–6 0 С in a sunny place (duration of the procedure - 20 minutes with a daily increase in time by 5 minutes).
Before planting, water the seedlings and remove them from the box with a clod of earth
Cultivation of cabbage begins long before the seeds are planted in the ground. In the fall, start preparing the beds, dig up the soil with the addition of fertilizers. Immediately before planting the cabbage, repeat the procedure, removing the weeds along the way and forming trenches for planting the seeds. The next step will be to choose a method of planting cabbage, traditionally there are two of them: seedling and seed.
Planting cabbage seeds
The step-by-step instructions are simple, starting with preparatory work.
- Determine when to plant the cabbage. Early varieties are not afraid of return frosts, start planting them in early March. Medium varieties are suitable for a month from the end of March to the end of April. There is no need to start planting late ones earlier than April 25th.
- Follow the rotation for cabbage. Prevention of cabbage diseases will be the choice of a place in the garden after carrots, cucumbers, potatoes and garlic.
- In addition to using mineral fertilizers, use peat and compost when planting, they will saturate the soil with the necessary nutrients. And wood ash will accelerate ripening.
- Soak cabbage seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate. This stage is necessary for the disinfection of seeds, is the prevention of the spread of diseases.
- Dip 4 seeds into each hole, carefully sprinkle them with earth so that they are no more than 5 cm deep. Cover each hole with a glass jar or cover the bed with plastic wrap.
- After a few days, you will notice the first shoots in the beds. Let the seedlings grow a little, remove the jars and thin out the cabbage, leaving one of the strongest sprout in each hole. Remove the removed sprouts slowly and carefully so as not to damage the cabbage root system. Put the cans back in place.
- Grow cabbage seedlings using traditional watering and feeding procedures. Remove cans from seedlings daily for airing and hardening, until a stable warm air temperature is established outside.
Planting cabbage seedlings
If for any reason you do not grow cabbage seedlings on your own, it is important to choose healthy and strong seedlings so that the cabbage takes root on the site and does not die. When buying seedlings, pay attention to the following points:
- The color of the seedling leg is bright, lilac, the leaves are of a dark green hue. A light pale color indicates a low quality of the product.
- Early varieties are characterized by a short stem of seedlings, late ones - a long one.
- Inspect the leaves and stem for spots, creases and wilted spots, such seedlings should not be bought.
Now let's figure out what to do with the seedlings next. If the weather is stable in your region, you no longer need to touch the seeds planted in the ground, there they will grow into heads of cabbage. If spring comes late in the region, it is recommended to grow seedlings at home, replanting mature seedlings in open ground in late spring. The same should be done with purchased seedlings.
- I remind you about hardening cabbage seedlings. Even if it is not grown in your garden, the hardening procedure is necessary for the plant to gradually get used to the weather conditions. At this stage, lay 10 days.
- Pick cabbage sprouts in separate holes located at a distance of 25 cm from each other.
- Transplant carefully using the transhipment method. To simplify the task, when growing cabbage seedlings on your own, plant the seeds in separate plastic cups, taking care of the presence of drainage holes in advance.
- To make picking easier, replace the cups with peat pots. They are transplanted into the hole together with the seedling; peat is an additional food for the seedling.
Planting seedlings in the ground
White cabbage, planting and caring for which consists in watering, feeding, loosening and hilling, needs loose soil and a light location.
It is customary to prepare the beds in the fall. Special arrangement of the area for planting is not required, warm or high beds are not needed. They dig up the earth on a shovel bayonet, bring in manure, humus, ash. Cabbage is first planted in the beds after the introduction of manure. For good development, she needs light, water and food.
In the spring, when loosening the beds, superphosphate is added to the ground - 10 grams per 1 sq. m. Ash and humus can be added.
The location of the beds is chosen light, without shade, since it is a very light-loving vegetable. They are planted with a ribbon in a row or staggered. The distance between the rows is 70-100 cm, the planting depth of the seedlings is up to the first true leaf.It is necessary to ensure that the growth point remains above the ground.
At what distance the seedlings are planted depends on the selected variety? Planting scheme for early cabbage 70x30 cm, medium - 70x40 cm, late - 70x50 cm.
Important! Sorts are planted at different times. Planting time for the early ones is at the end of April, the late ones are in May, and the middle ones are at the beginning of June.
Early vegetables grown for fresh consumption should be planted several times, after a week or two. The heads of cabbage ripen at the same time, but they are not stored. Therefore, the sowing time and, accordingly, the harvest should be extended for a couple of months.
Seedlings are planted on beds in holes 7-10 cm deep, they are made at intervals of 30-50 cm.
Pour 1-2 liters of water into the hole before planting and put a handful of ash and humus. For better rooting, watered with Kornevin solution. Seedlings are planted early in the morning, in the evening or in cloudy weather. In the first week, they are darkened from the sun until rooting.
The gaps between young seedlings at the beginning of growth are rather large. Therefore, compacting crops are often planted on the beds:
It is advisable to plant the distance between the bushes of young plants with strong-smelling spicy plants:
Their smell is good at repelling vegetable pests.
It is advisable to mulch young plantings with mown grass, straw, rotted sawdust. Mulch retains moisture in the soil longer, interferes with the development of harmful insects, and improves the structure of the soil.
The procedures required for the development and growth of cabbage are timely pest control, watering, hilling.
Prevention of parasites
The cruciferous family has many pests, systematic measures to combat them are necessary throughout the growing season. Since a waxy coating forms on the cabbage leaves, liquid laundry soap is added to the solution with protective preparations for better adhesion.
List of pests (table):
Provoke the death of the whole plant
Dippel, Lepidocide, Bactospein
Pretreatment of the soil with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid will eliminate the infection of cabbage with fusarium and keel. Treatment of seed with disinfectant solutions will protect from rot.
They refrain from abundant irrigation of the soil at first after planting cabbage in open ground. Excessive moisture provokes putrefactive diseases. The frequency of watering in the future depends on the natural conditions and the quality of the soil; watering is stopped 2-3 weeks before the expected harvest.
In the rainy season, heavy loamy soils are watered 3-4 times per season. For light fertile lands, the amount is increased up to 6 times, the hot and dry period is the reason for more frequent soil moistening, especially during the setting and intensive growth of heads of late-ripening and medium-ripeness varieties.
The crust formed on the surface of the earth after rains and irrigation is loosened to a shallow depth, providing free access of oxygen to the roots. Weeds are removed at the same time.
To enhance the development of the root system, they rake the soil to the stem around each seedling 25 cm in diameter, stimulate the growth of new roots. Seedlings are processed 7-10 days after planting in open ground to ensure the stability of the trunk. Re-hilling is done in 2-3 weeks, in this way they also remove excess moisture in damp lowlands.
Early varieties are fertilized 1-2 times per season, middle and late ones - 3-4 times. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied no later than a month before harvesting.
At the beginning of the growing season, more nitrogen substances are used. For the first time, superphosphate is used - 20 g, 10 g of urea, potassium chloride 15 g per 1 sq. m. It is convenient to dissolve in a bucket of water and pour into the grooves made in the soil at a distance of 10-12 cm from the row of seedlings.
The second time is fed when the cabbage is tying the heads of cabbage. Introduced in the aisles for 1 sq. m. potassium chloride 15-20 g, 10 g of urea, 20-30 g of superphosphate. The potassium dose is increased for subsequent feeding of late-ripening varieties. It is taken into account that the lack of sunlight stimulates the excessive accumulation of nitrates.
Cabbage is grown in all regions of Russia, Belarus and other CIS countries. There are many types of cabbage, each of them requires a special approach not only when growing seedlings.
Planting cabbage in open ground with seedlings also has its own subtleties. A good harvest is obtained if the rules of agricultural technology are applied.
Many gardeners have their own secrets, so cabbage heads of the same variety differ in size and density. Top dressing, watering, loosening - everything must be done on time and with love, in compliance with the cultivation technology.
Caring for cabbage after transplanting
After transplanting into open ground, cabbage needs full care, which will help the plant to take root in a new place. To properly care for plants, you need to perform the following manipulations:
Watering... Cabbage is a moisture-loving plant, so regular watering is vital. Watering frequency: in hot weather, once every 2-3 days, and in rainy weather, one watering every 5-6 days. Watering rate - 5 liters per plant.
Top dressing... It is recommended to carry out two dressings. The first is carried out two weeks after planting in open ground. The second feeding 15 days after the first. As a top dressing, you can use effective complex fertilizers or organic ones, they contain a sufficient amount of nutrients. For example, you can make a solution of mullein, chicken droppings, herbal infusion. To make a solution of mullein and droppings, mix the ingredients with water at a ratio of 1:10. And to prepare a herbal infusion, you need to pick and grind weeds (nettles, dandelions, etc.), pour water in a barrel, add a bucket of ash and a kilogram of yeast, leave for a week. Pour 0.5 liters of fertilizer under each plant.
Loosening... It is recommended to loosen the soil in the garden bed after each watering or rainfall. In this case, it is necessary, as it were, to form a watering circle around the plants, into which moisture must be introduced during watering.
Mulching... It retains the looseness of the soil, prevents the growth of weeds, retains moisture in the soil. It is not recommended to use grass, hay, straw as mulch, as dangerous slugs successfully reproduce and live in them. It is best to mulch with sawdust.
Dusting with wood ash... Wood ash helps prevent the invasion of aphids, snails, slugs. For effective dusting, you need to apply one glass of wood ash per square meter.
Video: caring for cabbage.
Having performed the correct transplantation in open ground, you can get an excellent harvest of cabbage, regardless of the variety (cauliflower, white cabbage, Brussels sprouts). But it is important not to forget about the basic elements of care that the culture needs.