Planting potatoes upside down will speed up and increase yields
A bush planted with sprouts down and the harvest from it
For several years of communication with amateur potato growers in the Omsk club of potato growers, I had to answer many questions. Most often, gardeners were interested in tuber planting schemes.
They asked: “What is the best aisle width? How often should you arrange tubers in a row? " These questions are very important for any crop and, of course, for potatoes too. After all, these parameters determine the degree of illumination of plants, the intensity of photosynthesis, and, therefore, the yield.
But it was very rare to hear a question about the depth of planting of potatoes. This is taken for granted. Well, what is there to think? I dug with a shovel - that's the depth. This is what most potato growers do. However, planting depth also matters. The correct planting depth of tubers ensures fast germination of tubers. Plants develop with a larger number of stems and a more powerful root system, which contributes to the accumulation of yield, creates better conditions for planting maintenance and harvesting.
So, How deep should the tubers be planted to get the maximum yield?
Many studies have been devoted to the depth of planting potatoes, but there is no consensus on what depth it is more appropriate to plant potatoes.
Typically, the planting depth can be 5 to 15 cm from the top of the tuber to the soil surface. It depends on the timing of planting, moisture availability, soil structure and other factors:
- with early planting in unheated soil, the tuber should be closer to the surface, since the surface layer of the soil warms up earlier, and the potatoes do not experience a lack of heat here;
- with dry spring and the impossibility of watering the plants in the initial period, planting should be as deep as possible, otherwise the plants will develop slowly due to lack of moisture;
- on light sandy and sandy loamy soils, planting can be deeper than on loamy and clayey soils. This is due to the presence of air in the soil - sand and sandy loam are usually more aerated.
- with shallow planting, a potato nest will form close to the soil surface, which will lead to a large number of green tubers that have crawled out to the surface. Shallow planting of tubers makes the subsequent hilling of potatoes necessary.
- with deep planting of seed tubers, it takes a lot of time for the sprouts to come to the surface. The faster the potatoes rise, the higher the yield will be. In addition, in this case, the number of plants suffering from rhizoctoniosis increases, due to which the seedlings are sparse and weakened. Planting too deep can lead to a decrease in yield, increasing the yield of small tubers. The tubers often become ugly. Tubers and roots need a lot of air, and at depth it may not be enough. In addition, deep planting makes it difficult to harvest potatoes.
In any case, you need to try to plant the tubers at the same depth to ensure that the seedlings are leveled. In the future, this will avoid the oppression of some potato plants by others.
With this method of planting, the tubers are easy to dig up
We, in the south of the Omsk region, have peculiar weather conditions. The short growing season, spring-summer dryness and high July temperatures, as well as heavy loams on my site, make their own adjustments to the choice of potato planting depth.
Lack of spring moisture (insufficient thickness of snow cover) and precipitation in summer requires deeper planting - the topsoil dries quickly. The July heat (up to 40 degrees) also suggests a deeper planting - when the soil warms up above 28 degrees, the potatoes stop filling the tubers.
On the other hand, deep planting is not desirable for us: a short growing season requires the potatoes to emerge earlier. On heavy loams, potatoes at depth give a low yield of small and often ugly tubers - the soil is too dense and poorly aerated.
For the past eight years, I have not used plowing and digging in my garden. All crops grow in narrow beds with mulched aisles. At first, this only exacerbated the contradictions with the planting depth. The very planting and harvesting of potatoes disrupted the structure of the soil. Over time, I found a way to plant tubers without burying them in the soil more than 5 cm from the surface. For this, it became use mulching - used straw, hay, foliage, and other organic residues as mulch. I have already talked about this in my articles.
With this my method of planting, it becomes impossible to huddle the bushes, and this reduces the potential yield of tubers. After all, stolons appear only on a white section of the stem, closed from light. Additional roots are formed only in a moist substrate. The question arose: how to increase the length of the stem under the soil surface without deepening the tubers? And the answer turned out to be very simple. You just need to germinate the tubers to a sprout length of 2-3 cm (see photo)and then plant the seed down sprouts... More precisely, I place the sprouted potatoes in the soil so that their sprouts are below the tuber and are in maximum contact with the soil.
Tubers for planting sprouts down
The reason is simple. The roots do not grow from the tuber, but from the sprouts. And since the tubers are not buried, then you need to make sure that the roots go into the soil faster. A dense, non-dug layer is located under the loose, organic-rich layer. The density of this layer provides a powerful capillary rise of moisture from the underlying layers. The structure of this layer is not disturbed by the intervention of a shovel, and it remains like a sponge, with an abundance of pores from the tunnels of worms and decayed roots. These pores are filled with air and provide good aeration to the potato roots.
In addition, with such a planting, the length of the etiolated (unpainted) section of the stems greatly increases. Roots and stolons are actively growing on this site. There is a kind of hilling effect, without hilling. Moreover, the stolons are located in a loose substrate, which is very important for potatoes. In dense soil, up to 50% of stolons do not form tubers of normal size.
Another advantage of planting upside down is that the bush forms wider than when planting upside down. Bending around the uterine tuber, the sprouts diverge to the sides. Some removal of the trunks in the bush contributes to better illumination of the seedlings, which means better photosynthesis - the development of plants in the initial, very important period.
The potato responds to this planting with a high yield. In the photo you can see the selection from the Bars hybrid population, the average yield from a bush is 3 kilograms. The maximum is 5, 6 kg. 700 kg (17.5 bags) were collected from a hundred square meters. Digging potatoes with this planting is much easier than with deep planting sprouts upwards - the tubers are all under mulch.
While examining the development of sprouted down potatoes, I noticed another unexpected effect of sprouting down - active tillering of the sprout. But it does not always manifest itself. In my experiments, this happened on 15% of tubers. Later I found a way to get all the shoots to bush. To do this, pinch the tip of the sprout. This technique allows you to get a multi-stem bush with the development of 1-2 sprouts at the top of the tuber (apical dominance).
Moreover, the tubers in such bushes are all large. I explain this by the lack of competition within the bush. In a typical multi-stemmed bush, each stem is a separate plant. And they compete with each other for light and nutrient solutions. As a result, 1-2 large or many small tubers are formed on each plant stem. On a plant that has grown from a single sprout branched underground, the tubers are large. And due to the increased etiolated area, there are a lot of tubers.
Anyone who decides to plant tubers sprouting downwards should be prepared for the fact that the potatoes will sprout later than from tubers planted sprouting upwards. With a no-till planting method, like mine, this is not a problem. It rises a little longer, but you can also plant it earlier - the top layer warms up faster, and I don't need to bury the tubers.
When planting potatoes upside down, you can build up the same length of the underground part of the stems using hilling. By simply planting sprouts down, this time-consuming and delaying operation is avoided.
If you want to get fresh tubers earlier, you can also use sprouting down. I am doing this successfully. Tubers with sprouts 1-2 cm long, stir down the sprouts in a box and completely fall asleep dry sawdust... In a dry substrate, roots are not formed, but the sprouts change the direction of growth and rise to the surface. By the time of planting, many thick, juicy shoots have formed on the tuber, which are already aimed at developing to the soil surface, as you can see in the photo.
With any choice of planting method - sprouts up or down - you must remember that potato tubers will form on branches - stolons that come from the stem of the plant, i.e. over the uterine tuber.
member of the Omsk club of potato growers
Agrotechnical requirements for planting potatoes
When planting cheese, we all ask ourselves the questions: "how to plant potatoes correctly?", "Which potatoes are better for planting?" Let's take a look at different methods of planting potatoes.
Potatoes are planted with a special tool - a seeder-planter. Landing technology using this device is as follows:
- by pressing the stop button, the device will sink into the ground
- a tuber is placed in the tube
- the handles of the seeder are reduced and the tuber remains in the soil
- the device is removed from the ground.
Further, another similar simple device, which also includes the abandonment of a shovel in planting potatoes and special rationality. This potato seeder is interesting, as described above, in that the whole process takes place in one pass, the ground is never trampled. And for gardeners who adhere to the rule of preserving the natural flora of the soil, this potato planter is just a godsend.
Without digging the earth
Gradually mark the spot on the virgin soil without digging. Ignore the grass weeds. Use only prepared propagating planting materials. The optimal size for one tuber is a chicken egg. Potatoes with this size contain the necessary amount of nutrients for the formation of a bush up to 30 cm high with a developed root.
Don't go deeper, don't push the tubers. Just lay them out on the garden bed:
- make 2 rows at a distance of about 50 cm from each other
- each of the rows should be no closer than 20 cm from the edge of the garden
- runway length - any
- 2-3 potatoes are superimposed in one nest, so that the bushes have increased the number of stems needed for high yields
- the distance between the nests is 25 cm.
The Buryat method or the "pyramid" method is as follows:
- The pipe is installed and covered with earth, forming a pyramid, the optimal size of each of its sides is 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5.
- Inside the pipe, the sawdust is tightly packed, the pipe is pulled out so that the sawdust remains in the center of the pyramid (we help with the shovel shaft).
- Then the shovel shaft makes holes where 16 potatoes are planted over the entire surface of the pyramid. Watering is carried out in the sawdust "pipe". With 16 potatoes in the pyramid, the gardener collects almost a sack of potatoes. It seems to me that it will be especially useful in cold climates or for getting an early harvest - the pyramid rises above the surface, and you can throw a few plastic water bottles for heating, and there will be no problem.
Into the combs by hand
This method (the ridge technique) is very good in that it makes it easier to plant by hand. The soil can be prepared just before the procedure. Pour the ashes on the future bed and dig thoroughly so that the fertilizer is evenly mixed.
The combs should be spaced 40 centimeters apart. Thus, there are three rows in a 120 cm stock. These are long embankments from the ground, in which you need to put potato tubers, placing them at a distance of 30-35 cm from each other.
If the weeds can be simply pulled out, then the pests will be more difficult. If there are pests in your area, such as bears and wireworms, it should be poured along with fertilizer onto the beds and pest poison and dug up.
In the trenches
Potatoes are planted in the trenches in spring during the lilac bloom. In winter, the droppings settle in the grooves, and from above it will be necessary to pour out the earth from the ridges. Before sowing the tubers, the trench is poured into water, a solution of EM preparations, compost tea or a solution of phytosporin. In the trench, every 30 centimeters are piled on a handful of dry chicken manure and onion husks, as well as one tablespoon of ash for feeding and protecting from pests. Sprouted tubers spread on the ashes and sprayed them over warm ground with a crest layer of three to five centimeters.
Two-row potato planting scheme
It is used both outdoors and on individual closed beds. In this case, the embankment pits do not have a continuous "carpet" throughout the site, but two strips with a meter difference between each pair. The scheme is convenient in all respects: when cultivating the land, you can use the manual or mechanized method, fertilization, watering.
Planting potatoes under a shovel
How to plant potatoes under a shovel? A proven method of growing vegetables for centuries. The method is reliable, for proper planting, it is only necessary to keep the depth of the potatoes laying within 10-15 centimeters and maintain the distance between the holes. What's great about planting potatoes under a shovel is that you don't need to use something like a tape measure to mark the distance. You can use a production tool as a reference. On average, one and a half scoops should be placed from bush to bush. The attractiveness of landing under a shovel is in its simplicity and reliability of "sealing" the planting material.
Potato planting machines
Planting of unprotected and sprouted (spring) tubers is carried out mainly with potato seedlings.
Types of potato harvesters: tractor-driven, tractor-driven (mounted and semi-mounted) one, two, four, six and eight rows, with false disc and conveyor trailers.
Kharkov gardener B. A. Bublik once dug a potato bush, planted a whole tuber, he found that completely isolated plants were formed from each eye in the nest. In the nest, they are very closely intertwined with each other, and B.A. suggested that in such tightness in the struggle for soil (and atmospheric) nutrition, each of the plants cannot make up the optimal possible yield. Then he decided to try to plant potatoes not with tubers, but with their eyes cut out. B. A. selects large tubers for this and sprouts them.
Before planting, he cuts out sprouted eyes with a mass of tubers the size of a large thimble from the tubers, throws them into a hammered corner, waits a day, and then plants in rows at a distance of only 15 cm from each other. The hole under the eyes is made with a pointed cone with a bracket installed in it, which can be pressed with your foot to deepen the cola into the soil. Planting eyes to such a depth that there was 5-6 cm of soil above the germinated eye. Putting his eyes in the holes, he falls asleep with soil from the bed.
With this planting, the planting material is saved several times, very large tubers grow in each nest of 3-4, the yield, according to B. A, reaches one ton from hundreds or more.
Planting potatoes with eyes
This potato growing option has many advantages. Thus, you need much less planting material. In addition, potatoes are much less likely to get sick, since only part of the tubers are used for cultivation. Finally, planting and grooming properly ensures a bountiful harvest.
Planting potatoes according to Meathlider
So, planting potatoes on the Meatlider. The essence of cultivation by this method is the excavation of narrow layers 9 m long and 45 cm wide and wide rows between 0.7-1 m. But still planted potatoes are necessary for fertilization, irrigation and weed weeds. It is necessary that the soil does not dry out.
In this video, you will see this method clearly.
Methods of planting potatoes Igor Lyadov
The width of the ridges according to Lyadov's method is 60-100 cm, and the passages between them are 60-80 cm. The walls can be any: wood, logs, bricks, boards, slates or stones. The main thing is to place them correctly: from north to south. The passages are mulched from sawdust, sand, roofing material or lawn, which is not difficult to cut once a month with a trimmer.
By the way, many also ask why the author of such beds uses sand in their beds? In fact, this is necessary so that heavy clay and loamy soils become lighter - it is much easier to breathe in such roots. After the clay becomes too dense after watering or rain, cover with a crust and it will quickly lose moisture. When the soil is diluted with sand, the soil structure is significantly improved, and this method was invented not only by Lyadov.
Due to the fact that the organic material in the Lyadov strata is no more than 30 cm, the heating temperature does not reach critical temperatures. This is a big plus. Plants grow healthy and vigorous, grow fast and are well tolerated. In each garden, you will need to plant two rows of vegetables in a checkerboard pattern. According to Lyadov, it is in this geometry that there is a huge margin of productivity. These plants have plenty of light and room to grow. Therefore, peppers, tomatoes, eggplants and cabbage can be successfully grown in the greenhouse. And in three or four rows - onions, beets, salads, radishes and garlic. In the end, in fact, although it sounds like a paradox, a small square is much more organic than a large one, and for a person in joy it is a process of growth. As a result, the garden itself becomes like a park - so everything is clean and tidy. And no weeds!
Planting under potato mulch
Traditionally, planting dates depend on the climate of the region: when the soil heats up to + 10 ° C. In hay / straw conditions, a lag of 10 cm is not required - the tubers are placed on moist, slightly weakened soil.
The soil for such a planting should be prepared - dug out with fertilization (Diammofoska - matchbox per square meter). But still, they make ashes in a glass in the holes. Such fertilization will increase the winter hardiness of the shoots.
We keep the normal planting depth of 8-10 cm. But on top of the bed, you still need to cover 10-15 cm of straw or reed. In extreme cases, peat or humus will be used. Without this warming, plantings can be severely damaged by thaw as the tubers grow. A layer of mulch will create a thermos effect and smooth out the drop in temperature.
A glass of ash and a small solution are poured into each hole in which the tubers are soaked in order to further protect them from pests and diseases.
So that there are no bald spots in the spring - we plant 2 tubers in each hole, in order to preserve the planting material, we choose shrapnel for planting. We cover each row with reed mats until spring.
Seed potatoes are best planted in late March or early April. As a container for seedlings, you can use boxes about 10 cm deep, cassettes or cups, but peat pots are better. Whichever container you use, it should have drainage holes, as potato seedlings are vulnerable to root rot resulting from stagnant water in the roots. Fill the vessel with a substrate, make holes or grooves 1-1.5 cm deep at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other and spread the seeds in them every 5 cm.After sowing, cover the surface of the substrate with a layer of dry sand 5 mm thick, lightly press on it, and then gently wet it from a spray bottle to avoid washing the seeds out of the soil. If you have planted the seeds in separate pots for easier maintenance, make the pots in one box. Cover the crop with foil or glass and keep at 18-22 ° C, periodically lifting the foil for ventilation.
The lunar calendar for planting potatoes and other crops can be viewed in our heading for each month.
How to prepare, process and germinate potato tubers before planting
Each summer resident and gardener pursues the goal of getting the maximum yield in quality and quantity, and at the same time avoiding unpleasant excesses - damage to plants by diseases and pests. And potatoes are no exception. It is highly recommended to process the tubers at home before planting it in open ground in order to increase productivity and protect it from diseases and pests. Consider the basic rules and methods of pre-planting seed potatoes in the spring.
Requirements for planting material
When growing potatoes using the Dutch method, it is necessary to pay great attention to the planting material. The final harvest and its quality will depend on how responsibly you take this issue.
If the tubers are affected by diseases or have a poor germination rate, then regardless of the work done, the harvest will be poor. Therefore, it is important not only to deal with the soil, but also to use first-class planting material.
The most important criteria for seed planting material are:
- tubers whose diameter is not less than 3 cm and not more than 5 cm (an error of even 0.7 cm is unacceptable)
- germination of material - more than 95%
- varietal purity, due to which the likelihood of manifestation of the qualities of other varieties of potatoes is completely excluded
- the use of exclusively the second reproduction of potatoes.
The planting material is divided into several stages: mini-tubers, super-super-elite, super-elite, elite, 1 reproduction, 2 reproduction, etc. That is, it is necessary to use only ideal material bred after 6 growing seasons.
The cost of such material will be significant, but the result will be able to cover more significant costs. Moreover, the purchase of expensive and high-quality planting material is a key condition for growing potatoes using Dutch technology.
One of the tricks the Dutch use is to plant potatoes with 100% germination. But according to laboratory studies, not a single potato variety has (and cannot, in principle, have) a germination rate of more than 99%. How do they do it?
Everything is very simple, but what none of the domestic producers does: planting already sprouted potato tubers. Doing this for an industrial-scale site is extremely difficult, and nevertheless, tubers with already existing sprouts are 100% likely to sprout. And the use of high quality fertilizers and so on will only help the process.
Before planting, the following germination and selection conditions should be met:
- it is impossible to use tubers smaller than 3-5 cm - the shoots will be very weak
- the average weight of each unit of planting material should be within 50 grams
It is important to understand why tuber sprouts should not exceed half a centimeter: this is due to the mechanical planting method. The fact is that longer sprouts will simply break off, but sprouts up to 2 cm long are suitable for manual planting.
Exactly 30 days before the planned planting, the existing tubers must be germinated. This is done in a dark room, where the temperature is kept at 16-18 degrees above zero. It is preliminarily allowed to arrange them in one layer on newspapers or fabrics on the floor.
Planting tubers should be bought in specialized stores, but not at agricultural fairs and, moreover, not from hands. An attempt to save money in this way will definitely come out sideways (there are no guarantees of quality), and the avaricious pays twice.
Unconventional landing methods
There are several new, unconventional methods of planting potatoes, some of which do not involve digging the earth. But those who tried it received consistently high yields.
Potatoes without digging the earth and planting in the grass
In everyday life, Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima, the author of many books and video courses on trouble-free processing of the site, is guided by simple principles: do not dig, do not weed, do not water, and a few more "do not". So she recommends putting potatoes on the ground immediately, on a bed of grasses and covering them on top with straw, covered from the wind with lutrasil.
As the lawn is mowed, it is necessary to gradually increase the layer of "feather bed" on the potatoes, adding new layers of compost or fresh grass.
Method of planting potatoes under straw from Galina Kizima - video
According to gardeners, planting potatoes under straw on virgin or very neglected areas is especially beneficial. The cut grass, tightly covering the soil, inhibits the growth of weeds. In the fall, after harvesting, summer residents receive excellent quality soil as a bonus. Having dug up the remnants of rotted straw, the same area can be enriched with organic matter.
How to plant in sawdust
Many summer residents successfully use wet sawdust for sprouting potato tubers. In the city, they can be purchased at pet stores. Wet, pre-steamed and cooled sawdust is placed on the bottom of a plastic container with a layer of 2 cm. From above, the tubers are carefully laid out with their eyes downward and rather tightly, then they are again covered with a layer of sawdust and everything is repeated several times. After everything is laid, the plastic container is placed in a spacious plastic bag, the edges of which are tied, leaving a small "window". The condition of the seedlings is periodically checked. It is impossible to overdry the sawdust, therefore it is recommended to spray them from a spray bottle with water at room temperature.
Sprouting potatoes on sawdust - video
This method is especially good because it allows you to germinate potato tubers in a city apartment long before the start of the garden season. There are two fundamental points when using sawdust:
- they should be wet, but not wet
- tubers on sawdust should be laid out only with their eyes down.
When potatoes are planted down with their eyes, the bush turns out to be wider, since during development the seedlings have to go around the mother tuber, as a result, each of them is better illuminated due to the distance from the rest. Accordingly, photosynthesis in each sprout is more intensive.
In the future, the tubers need to ensure the most careful transportation and planting. Sawdust can then be used on the site as mulch or dug into the ground.
The cascade planting method is used when it is necessary to plant potatoes on the slopes. This is a time-consuming process, you have to level out land plots at several sites, smoothing the relief. At the same time, intense rains can negate the results of work in a short time.
For planting potatoes, the plots are prepared in the fall. The soil is loosened and formed by furrows and ridges with a height of 12-15 cm. The distance between the rows is 60–70 cm, the location of the furrows is strictly across the slope. Winter grasses (rapeseed, mustard) are sown in the ridges, which have time to grow before the first frost.
In winter, these grooves and ridges, located across the slope, contribute to snow retention over the entire surface of the site. Due to the ridges and furrows, the height of the cultivated area is 12–15 cm higher than that of the untreated one, there is less depth of soil freezing and its water permeability is preserved. In spring, snow melts on prepared slopes gradually. Water is retained in furrows, slopes lose less fertile layer during thawing.
After warming up the soil in the spring, potatoes are planted in the furrows. They fall asleep from two ridges, digging in the remnants of winter grasses. As a result, instead of ridges, there are ditches in which water is retained. The use of winter grasses promotes water retention, reduces soil washout and enriches its composition with organic compounds.
How to plant potatoes under cardboard
This method resembles the method of planting under straw, but here, in addition to potatoes, cardboard is needed. After the snow melts and the ground warms up, you can begin to prepare the site. The area allotted for planting is covered with thick cardboard. No need to pre-dig, weed or mow the grass.
If there is a snowless winter or the soil under the proposed plantings is too dry, you need to water the ground before laying the cardboard.
With a large planting area, several sheets of cardboard are overlapped with a decent margin - up to 30 cm, so that weeds do not break out of the joints. At a distance of 25-30 cm, X-shaped cuts are made, where the sprouted potatoes are placed and the edges of the cardboard are closed so as not to injure the eyes. The potatoes remain in the house, as it were.
As the tops germinate, it should be mulched with straw in a layer of 10–15 cm several times over the summer. To prevent it from flying off the cardboard, you can use lutrasil. If the summer is not too dry, the potatoes, according to gardeners, will not even need to be watered. And in the fall, you don't have to dig the land to harvest. All potatoes will lie under the cardboard, you just need to rake off the remains of haulm and straw, and then remove the cardboard itself.
To prepare for planting potatoes, it is enough to cover the area with cardboard
Growing Mini Potato Tubers - Natural Farming
Many gardeners in the spring wonder where to get high-quality potato seed. It's no secret that quality, healthy planting potatoes are usually hard to find in stores and on the market. Meristem and super elite tubers are very expensive, as they require huge time and money to grow them in sterile conditions in specialized laboratories and are also rare. I found a way for myself to grow healthy mini potato tubers in the field in a month. I discovered this method in the book by A.S. Udovitsky. "Potato. Smart tips for a rich harvest. "
In order to grow healthy potato planting material, you need to observe the potatoes you planted during the season. This is necessary in order to identify the healthiest, strongest plants. The contender should be a powerful bush; during the season you did not find pests on it - aphids, Colorado beetles and especially their larvae. The leaves of the plant are bright green with no signs of disease. Tubers should be aligned in size, without signs of pest and disease infestation. As you can see, the selection is very strict, as in astronauts, but we want to get high-quality planting material. If not a single plant on your site meets the requirements, do not despair, choose the best that is. It is likely that next year you will still grow up a "cosmonaut".
So, the candidate has been selected, now you need to wait for it to bloom. This is very important, because if you hurry up and cut the cuttings without waiting for flowering, the cuttings will give roots and you will get a regular potato that takes 2-3 months to form tubers. The potato plant must bloom, i.e.only peduncles without flowers will remain on it, as in the photo, or berries - balabolki will be formed. By the way, the seeds from these balaboloks can also be used to grow mini tubers. Then the process of growing potatoes stretches for 2 years, like a turnip onion. In the first year, tuber-sets are formed, in the second year - commercial tubers. Moreover, balabolki can be planted in the fall, before winter.
But we got distracted. We first divide the dug out potato bush into stems, then carefully cut each stem with a sharp knife into cuttings 2-4 cm in size. The main thing is not to damage the leaf. A stalk is a part of a stem with a leaf and an axillary bud. It is from this bud that the leaf tuber will develop. Discard the uppermost and lowermost stalk from the stem. The rest of the cuttings are placed in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 4 hours. This is very important because potassium permanganate sterilizes the cut site and stimulates the outflow of substances from the leaf into the axillary bud, which makes it possible to obtain a leaf tuber without rooting. About 40 cuttings come out of one bush. For planting cuttings, it is better to choose a cloudy day or evening. The bed should be in the shade. I had it under the apple tree. With my finger, I poked holes about 5 cm deep and inserted cuttings into them. The leaf should be upright and the axillary bud at a depth of 1 cm. If your soil is dense, you will have to use tools. Planting is desirable to mulch and shed. After 2-3 weeks, the leaves will naturally turn yellow, and you can check how the process of leaf tuber formation is going on. In the axil of the leaf, a leaf tuber is formed, there will be no roots on the handle. The tuber is formed from the axillary meristem due to the nutrients obtained from the leaf. You can dig out the grown crop after 4 weeks.
The dug tubers must be disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, then rinsed with clean running water, dried, landscaped for 2 weeks in diffused light and folded into cloth or nylon bags. Store as seed potatoes.
As you can see, in the field in a month, you can grow potato meristem tubers and provide yourself with healthy, high-quality planting material. Thus, you can independently update and heal your favorite potato varieties.
Why planting potatoes in the Dutch way is popular: growing scheme and harvesting technology
Year after year is not necessary - this is the conclusion made by summer residents in case of a bad harvest. Quite unpretentious culture not every year pleases with a harvest. Diseases, pests, bad weather, soil conditions - individually and collectively, these factors determine the return of a potato bed.
To this list, it is also necessary to add the subjective components of an unsuccessful potato season: the wrong choice of variety, insufficient preparation (or its complete absence) of tubers, erroneous determination of the timing of planting potatoes.
A comprehensive solution to the problem of potato yield has long existed and has been successfully applied on an industrial scale. This is a Dutch technology for growing potatoes.
The essence of the Dutch method
Among the owners of small summer cottages, there is an opinion that growing potatoes "in the Dutch way" is possible only with the use of special equipment, in small beds it is not applicable. This is an erroneous point of view: Dutch technology only regulates the implementation of preparatory processes and adherence to the timing of planting exactly.
It does not matter in what way the ridges are formed: with a special potato planter or with an ordinary hoe. All operations on the potato bed are aimed at improving the aeration of the soil layer and the bushes themselves due to free planting. Each hundred square meters of the garden can bring up to 500 kg of high-quality tubers.
- Only varietal potatoes are used as planting material.
- For planting, material is selected not lower than the second reproduction.
- Be sure to comply with the rules of crop rotation. In one place, potatoes are planted only after 3-4 years, preferably after winter cereals or leguminous siderates.
- High yields of potatoes are impossible without the introduction of complex fertilizers.
- Timely prevention of damage to the site by pests, diseases and weeds is carried out according to the schedule with special chemicals.
- Compliance with the terms of autumn and spring tillage, adherence to technology are especially important points in increasing the yield of the garden.
Even farmers do not always follow the rules exactly: they save on quality seed and thicken the plantings. Small vegetable gardens of summer residents do not allow for crop rotation. Hence the skepticism about the possibilities of the Dutch method of growing potatoes.
Dutch way of growing potatoes - pros and cons
An inquisitive summer resident, as soon as he learns about the harvests of 400-500 kg from 1 are in the North-West region, begins to try on the Dutch method of growing potatoes and weigh all the positive and negative sides:
- For a potato bed, you can use a site with heavy soils and a close standing of groundwater, unsuitable for agriculture from the point of view of gardening practice.
- Possibility of using small mechanization for the maintenance of a potato bed. In the absence of technology, even with a simple hoe, it is not difficult to walk and correct the shape of the ridges.
- Due to the use of high-quality planting material, soil aeration and free planting, potato bushes practically do not get sick with fungal diseases.
- You can harvest tubers without the use of shovels and pitchforks: simply moving the ridge with your hand.
- An average yield of 400 kg from 1 ares is a lethal argument in favor of the Dutch method.
Such an impressive result of the Dutch method can be easily explained: potatoes grow in ideal conditions, in light, well-warmed soil with a constant flow of oxygen through the lateral surfaces of the ridge and a supply of nutrients in the growing zone.
The method also has a drawback - in the southern regions, without artificial irrigation, the Dutch technology is not applicable. The soil in the ridges dries out quickly. The costs of the irrigation system and the water itself increase the cost of potatoes.
What are the best varieties to grow according to the Dutch method?
The export of high-yielding potato varieties from Holland has been established in 70 countries of the world; it is not so difficult and expensive to purchase planting material. The purchase will pay off: the average yield of such potatoes is 400 kg from 1 are.
|Variety||Characteristics of the variety|
|Impala||Early ripening (50 days) variety of universal geography - Middle lane, Siberia, southern regions (2 harvests).|
|Red Scarlett||Early variety with red tubers |
(white pulp does not darken during heat treatment)
|Prior||An early variety with high resistance to nematodes, late blight and viral diseases|
|Cleopatra||An unpretentious early variety, not afraid of the most depleted soils.|
|Mona lisa||Medium early variety, gives 2 kg of tubers per bush.|
|Asterix||Medium late variety with tubers well stored until spring|
|Variety||Characteristics of the variety|
|Nevsky||Medium early variety with high immunity and productivity|
|Zhukovsky early||Early ripening variety with a yield of up to 600 kg from 1 are. Resistant to all fungal and viral diseases. Very tasty.|
|Peter's riddle||Creamy pink tubers are stored until spring. In the North-West, the average yield is up to 300 kg per one hundred square meters.|
|Zdabytak||A late variety from Belarus, resistant to all diseases, contains a lot of starch.|
You should not save on planting material - maximum second reproduction after seed reproduction.
The invested funds will pay off not only by an increase in yield, varietal plants practically do not get sick, to a lesser extent they are damaged by pests, and have high immunity.
The technology has been developed and tested in Holland, which most of all corresponds to the North-West region in terms of climatic conditions and soil moisture. All operations on the site are aimed at creating optimal growing conditions for potatoes: from the moment of planting to harvesting.
- The area for potatoes should have a flat surface without a slope: uneven distribution of moisture will affect the yield.
- Compliance with the rules of crop rotation on the site, which increases the natural fertility of the soil and is an excellent prevention of fungal diseases and rot, the pathogens of which live in the soil layer.
- Improvement of the soil through sowing green manures, like the predecessors of potatoes.
- Loose soil, saturated with oxygen, accelerates the emergence of seedlings and the development of the bush in the future.
- The fertility of the site is of no fundamental importance - when planting potatoes, fertilizers are placed in the base of the ridge. The root system of the bush practically does not penetrate below this level.
- The shape of the ridge provides quick heating of the soil due to the relief of the bed. The temperature inside the ridge is on average 2-3 ° C higher than the temperature of the soil layer below the base.
- In conditions of excess water, excess moisture quickly leaves the ridge, which has a beneficial effect on the growing processes of potatoes.
How to prepare tubers for planting
Dutch agricultural technology involves the use of only healthy planting material: tubers not lower than 2nd reproduction, the so-called "elite" and "superelite". These root crops have not yet had time to become infected with fungal spores and viruses.
Small tubers of 50-70 g (the size of a chicken egg) from a trusted supplier have 100% germination, saving in this case is inappropriate.
A mandatory stage of Dutch agricultural technology is the germination of seed tubers. The emergence of sprouts confirms 100% seed germination. For manual planting, the length of the seedlings is insignificant; the machine cannot plant seeds with sprouts over 5 mm without damage.
Dutch agronomists pay great attention to the processing of planting tubers from aphids with special means. Aphids feed on plant juices and spread viruses. Such treatment protects plantings from dangerous potato diseases.
How to grow potatoes "in Dutch": site preparation
- The Dutch technology in our interpretation is often far from the original, many aspects are not taken into account.
- The surface of the site, ideally, should be strictly horizontal without inclination, which ensures an even distribution of water.
- The soil should be loose, plowed or milled even before planting: autumn plowing to a depth of 22-27 cm (preferably with a seam overturn) and spring processing with a milling cutter or cultivator cutter with soil cultivation by 12-14 cm.
Spring loosening of the soil with a cutter accelerates the ripening of potatoes by 7-10 days.
Repeated machine cultivation of the land in combination with the introduction of large doses of fertilizers and strict adherence to all technologies are the main points in the preparation of a land plot for potatoes.
In the absence of equipment in the summer cottage in the spring, use an ordinary shovel or pitchfork (the distance between the teeth is 2-3 cm, the thickness of the tooth is 0.5 cm). Such working out with a pitchfork preserves the capillary structure of the soil without overturning the layer. Through these capillaries, the uterine tuber will feed on soil moisture.
Tuber planting scheme
According to the scheme of planting potatoes according to Dutch technology, per 1 sq. m of the garden bed should have no more than 30 stalks of potatoes: 400-500 tubers are planted per weave (100 sq. m.).
Rows for planting tubers are placed in the north-south direction, the illumination of all bushes during daylight hours will be uniform. The row spacing is marked at least 65-80 cm - this is the minimum area that provides adequate nutrition to the plantings. There is no point in deepening planting material the size of an egg, a 4 cm deep furrow is enough.
To grow potatoes in the Dutch way, 2 methods of breaking the beds for planting tubers are used.
- Rows with the same distance between them about 70 cm.
- Paired rows (ribbons) with a row spacing of 25-30 cm and a wide row spacing of 120 cm.
Planting in paired rows is justified when using drip irrigation: the system is laid inside the tape.
How to choose the right landing time
The most important rule is not to prepare the soil in advance, at most the day before.
You can navigate by folk signs - the blooming of birch leaves. The main criterion is the state of moisture, when, when digging, the soil itself falls off the shovel.
The easiest and most reliable method
To check the readiness of the soil for planting potatoes in Dutch, you need to take a handful of earth, squeeze it with your palm in a lump and easily throw it on the ground. If a lump crumbles from hitting the ground, the soil is ripe.
Compliance with the planting dates for the readiness of the soil contributes to the rapid rooting of tubers and the accelerated growth of the leaf apparatus of the potato bush.
The process of planting potatoes using Dutch technology step by step
The technique is based on well-known techniques. The Dutch combined everything into one clear scheme and connected it with the automated planting of tubers.
With regard to the conditions of the suburban area, the sequence of operations is as follows:
- After cultivation of the topsoil, rows are marked: direction - "north-south", distance - 70-80 cm.
- A shallow furrow (4 cm) is drawn along the stretched cord.
- Sprouted tubers are laid out at intervals of 30 cm.
- Level the surface of the bed.
- 2 weeks after the emergence of shoots, a ridge with a height of 25 cm is formed: the cross section is an isosceles trapezoid, the upper base is 15-20 cm, the lower one is 45-55 cm.
- Simultaneously with the formation of the profile of the ridge, all weeds are removed.
Dutch method - features of caring for a potato bed
Classic Dutch technology suggests using a milling cultivator for large areas for weed harvesting, which leaves behind trapezoid-shaped ridges of the desired height of 25 cm.This treatment combines 3 processes:
- weed removal
- ridge formation.
After the formation of the profile, the Dutch technology does not imply an obligatory series of plant treatments with various preparations:
- Weed killing herbicides.
- Treatment with reagents for the prevention of late blight - 5-6 treatments per season. The first treatment is carried out only when signs of the disease appear.
- During the growing season, at least 3 watering is carried out: 1 before the beginning of flowering 2 a week after the flowers wither 3 after another 20 days.
- Insecticide treatments include spraying against aphids (a virus carrier) and Colorado potato beetle.
In the fight against viruses, Russian farmers do it easier - they remove diseased plants.
In order to grow potatoes using the Dutch method, it is necessary to carry out high-quality soil preparation before planting the tubers; additional feeding is not provided.
Dutch technology pays special attention to timely harvesting. There are 2 cleaning times:
- seed tubers are harvested in late July - early August
- food potatoes are chosen in late August - early September.
10-14 days before harvesting, you must cut the tops. The process is necessary for two reasons:
- Ripening of tubers is accelerated. By this time, they have already gained weight: cutting the tops produces the production of stress hormones, the skin of the potato thickens.
- Cutting the tops is an additional prevention against infection of tubers with viruses.
Tubers are easy to harvest: without tools, they move the top of the ridge by hand and select the tubers.
For long-term storage of tubers, you need a cool room with good ventilation: a cellar, a basement. It is best to store your stock of potatoes in wooden crates or bags.
A scientifically grounded system of measures on the potato garden with the use of special chemicals and means of mechanization - the Dutch method of growing potatoes.
The record yield and the ability to grow potatoes on any soil make the method extremely attractive for gardeners in the North-West and the entire non-chernozem region.
With a yield of 400 kg of selected tubers from 1 weave, the Dutch are worth listening to.