The plant Pereskia, or peyreskia, belongs to the genus Cactus, which is native to South and Central America. For the first time representatives of this genus were described by Charles Plumier in 1703. This genus was named after Nicolas-Claude de Peyresque, who was a French scientist. Karl Linnaeus initially attributed these plants to the genus Cactus, but in 1754 they were separated into an independent genus by Philip Miller.
At the moment, 18 species of pereskii have been found and described. This genus is represented by both treelike and bushy forms. At home, only a few species are common.
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom... It is long lasting. Often lasts throughout the summer and fall.
- Illumination... In the morning hours, the bush needs direct sunlight, in the afternoon it is provided with slight shading or diffused light. It is recommended to put the cactus on the south window, while it will need shading.
- Temperature regime... During the growing season - from 22 to 23 degrees. Shortly before and during the dormant period, the bush is moved to a cool place (about 15 degrees). Make sure that the room is not colder than 10 degrees.
- Watering... During active growth, pereskia is often watered, and the substrate is moistened only when it dries 15 mm deep. Do not leave water in the pallet. With the onset of the dormant period, watering should become more scarce and less frequent.
- Air humidity... It grows normally at the humidity level typical for the living room. For hygiene purposes, the plant is periodically given a shower. On hot summer days, if desired, the bush can be moistened with a spray bottle with warm water, but only in the evening.
- Fertilizer... Top dressing is carried out in May – September 1 time in 4 weeks. To do this, use a solution of a mineral complex intended for cacti and succulents. In the remaining months, fertilizer is not applied to the substrate.
- Transfer... While the bush is young, it will have to be transplanted up to several times a year. An adult bush is transplanted only if necessary, when the pot becomes small. The bush is transplanted using the transshipment method.
- Reproduction... By cuttings and seed method.
- Pests... Spider mites and mealybugs.
- Diseases... Gray and root rot.
Perescia is a leafy cactus. In this regard, its appearance bears little resemblance to the thorny cactus, which is most often associated with this word. The color of the leaf plates is purple or green. Areoles with needles are arranged in a bundle or singly in the leaf sinuses. In natural conditions, they help the plant to cling to trees. As the leaf plates age, their color becomes more faded, while they begin to dry out. With the onset of a dormant period, the plant sheds such leaves.
The bush can be about 10 meters high, while its annual growth can be more than 20 centimeters. This evergreen leaf cactus looks like a branched bush, its rhizome is massive. Over the years, lignification of erect shoots is observed, on the surface of which a glossy red-brown bark is formed.
Shoots are decorated with ovoid or oval whole-edged leaf plates, at the top of which there is a sharpness. They can be petiolate or sessile, and their length reaches 50 mm. Foliage folds slightly along the median vein. Its surface is glossy, which protects it from too rapid evaporation of moisture.
Flowering is observed in summer or autumn. A large number of axillary flowers appear on the bush, which lack a tube, which also distinguishes the pereskia from other cactus species. The flower consists of 8 lanceolate petals, which open wide. Therefore, the flowers of such a cactus are more like a rose hip. After pollination, in place of the flowers, cone-shaped or round berry-shaped fruits are formed, which are covered with a glossy beige or yellow skin of high density. These berries should not be eaten. There are several black seeds inside them.
Pereskia Godseff is an ancient cactus with foliage. Care features
Caring for ossification at home
Pereskia belongs to light-loving plants, therefore, it is recommended to choose a southern orientation window for it. But do not forget to shade the bush from the scorching midday sun rays, as they can leave burns on its foliage. Such a cactus needs a regular supply of fresh air, so the room will often have to be ventilated. In the summer, it can be moved to the garden or to the balcony, while a reliable place protected from precipitation is chosen for the bush.
In the warm season, the plant feels comfortable at temperatures from 22 to 23 degrees. With the onset of autumn time, it should be transferred to a place where the air temperature will be constantly about 15 degrees. During the winter months, make sure that the room is not too cold (below 10 degrees). During the dormant period, the bush is provided with systematic ventilation and a large amount of light.
During the growing season, the leafy cactus should be provided with a relatively frequent moistening of the substrate. At the same time, experts do not advise allowing the surface of the soil mixture to dry out more than 15 mm in depth. To prevent the development of fungal diseases, the water drained into the pan after watering must be removed.
When the bush is placed in a cool place, it is watered more rarely and less abundantly. However, if a plant suddenly begins to fly around the foliage, this means that it suffers from a lack of moisture. If tap water is used to irrigate the pereskii, then it must be well defended or filtered. Its temperature should be close to room temperature.
The level of air humidity does not play a special role in the cultivation of such a crop. A regular warm shower is arranged for her only in order to remove dust accumulated on the stems and foliage. On hot summer days, the cactus responds well to moistening with settled soft water in the evening.
Indoor pereski needs systematic feeding. It is fed regularly once every 28 days, starting in May and ending in September. For this, a solution of a special mineral complex for cacti is used. Remember that the fertilizer should contain a minimum amount of nitrogen, otherwise rot may appear on the root system of the bush. With the onset of September, fertilization is stopped and resumed only in May.
While the cactus is young, sometimes it has to be transplanted into a larger pot several times a year. The bush is transplanted by the transshipment method, while trying not to damage its root system. An adult shrub needs replanting only when necessary. For example, when its root system ceases to fit into the old container.
Since the root system of the pereskia is large and powerful, a voluminous roomy pot is chosen for planting it. A thick layer of drainage is laid at the bottom of the container; pieces of foam or expanded clay are suitable for this. Then, the cactus is transferred from the old container to the new one. Place the bush in the middle of the pot and carefully fill in any voids with fresh, fertile potting soil. To prepare it, combine humus, leaf and clay-sod soils with sand (2: 2: 2: 1). If you did everything correctly, then the pereskia will quickly adapt and start growing.
Pereskia Godsef TRANSFER
In indoor conditions, such a leafy cactus, as a rule, pleases flower growers with regular flowering. The bush blooms during the summer or early autumn. Sometimes it happens that the bush itself is distinguished by its violent growth, but at the same time it does not want to bloom. This is due to the fact that when caring for the plant, gross mistakes were made or optimal conditions for growth were not provided for it. If you provide a cactus with proper care and suitable conditions, then it will definitely bloom.
Cuttings and seeds are used for propagation of homemade pereskii.
Growing from seeds
Sowing of seed material is carried out in spring, for this they use a small container filled with a loose soil mixture. Crops are transferred to a warm place (from 20 to 22 degrees). After the seedlings appear, the container is transferred to a warm and well-lit place, but at first they need to be protected from direct sunlight. When the seedlings grow up and get stronger, they are dived into individual pots.
Cuttings are harvested in spring or summer, for this it is enough to cut off a few shoots. Then they are planted for rooting in perlite or peat, and covered with a transparent cap on top. For faster emergence of roots, cuttings are provided with an air temperature of about 25-28 degrees.
For rooting, cuttings can be placed in a glass of water. In this case, the roots will grow back on them after about 20 days. After rooting, the segments are planted in permanent containers.
PERESCIA Godsef Cuttings
Pests and diseases
With home transfer, problems can arise if the rules of care are violated. For example, due to stagnant moisture in the substrate, rot may appear on the neck and root system of the plant, especially if the room is cool. Also, the plant can rot due to poor-quality drainage or due to its absence. For prevention purposes, adhere to the rules of the watering regime, and also do not forget that the cooler it is in the room, the less often the potted soil is moistened.
Mold can appear on the shoots, which is a symptom of fungal diseases such as gray rot. The disease develops due to excessively high air humidity, provided there is insufficient ventilation. Using a sharp, sterilized tool, cut out the decayed parts of the bush. Then the overspray is sprayed with a fungicide solution.
Most often, sucking pests such as mealybugs settle on a leafy cactus. They use vegetable juice as food. Symptoms of the appearance of such an insect are a whitish coating on shoots and foliage. The insects themselves live on the seamy surface of the leaf plate. If there are few insects, then it is recommended to remove them from the bush with a cotton swab soaked in alcohol, then it is treated with garlic infusion. If there are already a lot of pests, then you cannot do without treatment with an insecticidal preparation (Aktara, Aktellik or Fitoverm). It is recommended to spray the plant very abundantly in the fresh air.
If the air is constantly dry in the room, then spider mites, which are arachnids, can settle on the cactus. They are very small and cannot be seen with the naked eye. But if you see a thin cobweb on a bush, then this is a clear sign that there are a lot of pests on it. In this case, folk remedies will no longer help. Moisture copes best with spider mites. Arrange a warm shower for the flower, moisten it daily in the evening from a spray bottle with soft, well-settled water. If the pests still remain, then treat with an acaricidal preparation.
- The foliage turns pale - a lot of light.
- Stopping growth - poor watering in summer or overflow in winter, the plant was not transplanted on time.
- The shoots are stretched out - little light.
- The tip of the shoot wrinkles, spots of soft rot can be found below - stagnation of moisture in the soil (especially in winter).
Types of transfer with photos
At home, not all types of pereskii are cultivated, but only a few. These are detailed below.
Large-leaved pereskia (Pereskia grandifolia)
In nature, such a plant has a height of about 5 m, and its stem reaches up to 25 centimeters in diameter. Glossy, leathery to the touch, leaf plates, when the air temperature drops to 10 degrees and below, begin to fly around. Many needles grow on the stems, the length of which is about 30 mm. Pink flowers are found in small inflorescences.
Large leaf plates of this type are decorated with a pattern of veins. Flowering is observed in the summer, at this time flowers are formed on the bush that look like small roses of an orange-red hue. The rich yellow cone-shaped fruit has an unusual pineapple aroma. The first description of this species dates back to 1823.
The height of such a succulent is about 3 m, its rhizome is thickened. The bush blooms in the first weeks of March, and fades in early June. In diameter, the white flowers reach about 10 mm.
The shoots of this curly bushy species are fleshy, they reach up to 15 mm in diameter. Dark green oval-lanceolate leaf plates are about 9 centimeters long and up to 4 centimeters wide. The lower part of the stem becomes bare over the years, but it continues to be decorated with brown areoles with 1-3 straight rigid needles. In the first autumn weeks, the bush blooms. On the tops of the stems of the current year, cup-shaped fragrant flowers of white-yellow color with a pinkish tint are formed. After pollination, in place of the flower, yellow fruits with a length of about 20 mm are formed, similar to gooseberries. They can be eaten.
This golden-leaved plant is a species of peresky prickly, and it is very rare. Its berries can be eaten, and they are similar to underripe gooseberries.
Pereskia prickly godseff / Home care
Brighamia (Brighamia) belongs to the Bellflower family. Popularly, this succulent is called a Hawaiian palm, a volcano palm. Scientists have established that brigamia has existed on the planet for at least a million years. But in the homes of amateur flower growers, the plant began to appear quite recently and few people know how to properly care for it.
The Hawaiian Islands are considered the birthplace of the brigamia. It can be found on steep volcanic slopes. During such a long period of time by human standards, the brigamy changed its appearance more than once. So, the length of the flowers gradually increased until it reached 15 cm. Insects with long proboscis could pollinate such a plant. But when people began to populate the Hawaiian Islands, the irreversible result of their economic activity led to the complete disappearance of such species of insects. Many plant species were threatened with extinction, including brigamia, which practically ceased to propagate by seeds due to the lack of a natural pollination process. About 20 years ago, this plant species was on the verge of almost complete extinction. But the situation was turned in a positive direction thanks to the efforts of scientists at the Hawaiian National Park. They began to rescue many species of endangered animals and plants. Among them was the brigamy.
Scientists had to be far from just fighting for brigamy. The flowers had to be pollinated by hand, and since the plant is located on volcanic slopes, the scientists climbed to a height of more than 1 km above sea level. Thanks to the courage of specialists, we can observe this beautiful flower to this day.
The well-known Dutch company "Plant Planet" is famous for its flower greenhouses. The rarest species of plants are grown and propagated in them, and those that are on the verge of extinction are saved.It was here that the seeds of the brigamia were delivered. And then experts began to breed special species of this plant that can grow and bloom at home.
Reproduction of medinilla
The most effective methods of reproduction of medinilla are growing it by seeds or cuttings.
Seeds for planting can be purchased or obtained from a home plant. The seeds are planted in flat pots in February-March. The substrate for planting should consist of a mixture of sand and turf. The pots should be in warm conditions, you can even organize mini greenhouses. The sprouts that appear are dived and later transplanted into pots as adult plants.
For propagation of medinilla by cuttings, the period from January to May is suitable. For this you need cuttings with 3 buds. They are planted in a substrate, covered with a jar or film on top, and kept at a high temperature - about 25-30 degrees. The roots of cuttings appear after 5 weeks. Further, the shoots are transplanted already as an adult plant into a previously prepared substrate.
Pests and diseases
A plant of this type can suffer from several diseases and pests. The most common are:
- Spider mite. Symptoms are cobweb appearing on the bottom of the leaf and small dots on the top. As a rule, the leaves lose color, becoming pale yellow. The plant suffers from mites that suck the juices out of it, hence the pinpoint pigmentation on the leaves. In the absence of proper attention, the size and number of dots increase, and the leaves die and fall off. Cactus and its condition indicate this disease? This means that the air is too dry even for such a dry-loving plant as peresky. Moisten the air, regularly clean the leaves from dust (this is necessary in any case). Be sure to cover the soil and treat the plant with a mild soapy solution.
If the lesion is large-scale, then it becomes necessary to use chemicals. Be sure to remove fallen leaves, they are still a source of danger.
- Scale cactus. As a rule, it is orange or pale yellow in color, with a shield, the size of which does not exceed 2 mm. As a rule, it is localized at the top of the sheet. In order to get rid of the problem, treat the pereskiy (not only the leaves, but also the trunk) with soapy water... It is also permissible to use a soap-alcohol mixture: mix 30 g of liquid soap, 20 ml of alcohol in 2 liters of warm water.
- And finally, the main enemy of pereski is powdery pepper. Its size usually does not exceed 4 mm; it is localized on the surface of young shoots. A characteristic feature of this disease is a sticky liquid that comes out of the peppers and solidifies as it flows. True signs that a cactus suffers from powdery pepper: deformation of leaves and shoots, arachnoid bloom, fallen flowers.
As in previous cases, pereskija is subject to treatment with a soapy solution and spraying with garlic broths (or calendula tincture) three times, with an interval of a week between sprays.
Often, pereskiya is sick due to improper care. If you regularly over-moistened the soil, then the root system received more water than it could take and began to rot. The only correct decision in this situation will be to completely change the land and it must be taken with maximum efficiency.
If you decide to change the pot, then the roots must be treated with charcoal.
Cactus also critically "reacts" to dryness of the soil, so try to find a certain balance in matters of frequency of watering.
Pereskii leaves must be cleaned of dust
Possible difficulties in growing pereskii
Lack of gain. The reason is insufficient watering in summer or waterlogged soil in winter. This also happens in the absence of timely transplantation and abundant summer watering.
With a lack of light, especially in summer, the plant stretches, the length of internodes increases.
Shriveled end of the stem, spots of soft rot at the bottom.
The reason is waterlogging of the soil, especially in winter.
Damaged by: mealybug, spider mite, scabbard.