Late autumn edible mushrooms
The first serious autumn frosts, as a rule, discourage mushroom pickers from going into the forest with a basket. The season is closed! However, if the frost is followed by a thaw, as happened this October, the residents of the Leningrad Region have every chance to please themselves with a “quiet hunt” even in late autumn and diversify the menu.
A week without night frosts made us, who temporarily moved to a village near Luga, seriously think about resuming our favorite summer activity - mushroom hunting. And the already outstanding warm day with the sun, somehow not at all in autumnal shining from the cloudless sky, literally forced us to follow our old mushroom paths. It cannot be said that they were somehow especially counting on success, but what if?
Already the first steps through the forest brought the confidence that our hopes were not in vain: amid the abundance of those beaten by the frost and limp from the rains bitter there were fungi whose age was clearly less than a week old, i.e. they grew after the frost. It was and russulaand young fly agarics - here it was not their suitability for food that was important, but the very fact of the likelihood of the appearance of fruit bodies on the mycelium after night frosts.
On the sandy hillocks were found in abundance greenfinches (otherwise they are called brilliant green, but if we speak in the language of science, then this mushroom is called rowing green). Strong, of wonderful color, they were located in whole families on the slopes. The earth or white moss rises with a bump - look for brilliant green. This mushroom grows most often in pine forests, less often mixed with pine forests, mainly in large groups. The cap of the brilliant green is first convex, then flat, often with a wavy raised edge, sometimes cracking; dense, smooth or slightly scaly, yellowish-greenish, olive-brownish in the middle.
The pulp is well developed, dense, white or yellowish, with a pleasant taste, without any special smell. Those who ate them claim that the mushroom is delicious. Zelenka is pickled, salted, canned. At the same time, they complain that there is too much sand in these mushrooms. However, there is a way to get rid of this trouble by soaking the green stuff for a couple of hours in salt water, and then thoroughly rinsing them with running water.
Let's say right away - we did not collect green stuff, because we had never tried it and at the time of walking through the forest were not even sure of their edibility. In the evening, after chatting with neighbors, we found out that these mushrooms can not only be used for food, but they are also useful: firstly, they contain anticoagulants that prevent blood clotting, and also have a slight antimicrobial effect.
The ability to fight microbes is different and chanterelle, which we also managed to find in the forest. There were quite a few chanterelles. They preferred to hide in moss and, due to their relative youth, they had not yet managed to reach large sizes. Finding a chanterelle is always a joyful event, but in the slightly faded October forest, its bright color was especially pleasant.
Closer to the most beloved places, which in the summer in abundance delighted us with porcini mushrooms, they began to meet boletus... They did not look so hot - most often they became limp from the past rains with all the ensuing consequences. At the same time, they remained absolutely clean, since, apparently, neither worms nor mosquito larvae are found at this time of the year.
However, I did not want to collect the soggy butter. I wanted to find whites, although it was already clear that they were unlikely to be in the same “good shape” as the summer or September ones.
White were found. A total of 9 pieces. They looked exhausted in order - apparently, appearing in the world after the frost was still difficult for them. The hat had some kind of shabby appearance, with inconceivable tubercles and small pits, the biological meaning of which remained incomprehensible. They were somehow not particularly pleased with the cleanliness, because they were somehow watery, and not at all as strong and vigorous as they should be.
In general, porcini mushrooms are something magical. We can only express our solidarity with the opinion of Igor Lebedinsky, who contains an entire website on the Internet dedicated to mushrooms, and literally said the following about white:
“You can write a novel about the porcini mushroom. To write, but not to write: the porcini mushroom will still not fit into the framework of the novel. There are many beautiful mushrooms, but where else can you find a mushroom near which you want to sit and die peacefully, because nothing will be better? It's easy with white. You just need to find ... White mushroom - the antipode of the pale toadstool. The toadstool breathes aesthetics, the toadstool is impeccable in every detail ... but for some reason it doesn't please. (Although, of course, it's understandable why). The porcini mushroom is a completely different matter. Not always correct, not too elegant, simple. Like Lenin ".
Our autumn whites did not quite match this generally very fair characterization. It would be superfluous to die beside them. But their certain autumnal "dilapidation" did not affect their taste in any way, we, in any case, did not notice.
Summing up the results of the campaign, one should say this: there are a lot of mushrooms in the forest both before frost and after the first frost, and as literature data show, you can find them even under the snow. Of course, these will not be white and not even chanterelles, but representatives of the same Ryadovkov family, to which the brilliant green belongs. We are talking about mushrooms. Here is a wonderful story told by one of the inquisitive mushroom pickers:
It happened on January 6, 1995, when we were going to celebrate Christmas in the Kukhmar tract, not far from Pereslavl-Zalessky. We are teachers who have been working at the computer camp together for several summer shifts. The preparation of the festive dinner was accompanied, as usual, by memories of the summer months spent together.
- Eh, there would be more mushroom soup ...
“What is it about,” I replied. - Let's do it!
- No, from dried mushrooms - that's not the same. That would be fresh.
- So, we will make from fresh. Everyone present looked at me attentively ...
- Maxim, do not joke, do not poison the soul. In the forest of snow to the waist!
It all ended with a grandiose bet on a bottle of cognac: if I can pick up mushrooms today, January 6th, and cook soup - my cognac, if not, I lost. In the evening, fresh mushroom soup was served at the festive table. I won the bet. It's just that my programmer friends did not know about winter mushrooms, which are found here and are not at all so rare. Just look for them not on the ground, under the snow, but in the trees.
One of our most common winter mushrooms is Winter mushroom (Flammulina velutipes sing.). He belongs to the extensive family of Ryadovkov (Tricholomataceae)... Many other well-known species of mushrooms belong to this family - autumn (or real) mushroom and meadow mushroom; purple ryadovka appearing in our deciduous forests in autumn, and green ryadovka (greenhouse) in pine forests; pigs, talkers, money, garlic.
Fruiting bodies of winter honeydew appear in late autumn with a decrease in air temperature and an increase in humidity. The mass development of this fungus lasts after snowfall until the onset of stable frosts. Then, throughout December, January and February - until March - the mushroom continues its development: frozen mushrooms thaw during the thaw period and continue to grow and form viable spores.
Flammulina - winter honey
Only with the onset of early spring, the fruiting bodies begin to turn brown, shrink and die off. At this time, they are already inedible. In terms of its taste and nutritional qualities, winter honeydew belongs to the fourth category (we remind you that the highest food category is the first, which includes porcini mushrooms and mushrooms). However, it appears in significant quantities when other edible mushrooms no longer exist. You can do with it everything that is done with other mushrooms - cook soup from it, salt, dry, pickle.
Winter is reliably distinguished from false mushroom by the color of the plates on the bottom of the cap - they are yellowish-white (this can also be seen in our photo), while the false mushroom has greenish plates. However, you can safely collect winter mushrooms without fear of poisoning - there are simply no false, inedible or poisonous mushrooms similar to it at this time of the year. (Information from the site http://www.edu.yar.ru)
Those who have been inspired by this story, please share ... no, not fresh winter mushroom soup, but just stories about mushroom hunting in the off-season - from November to April. Perhaps winter mushroom hunting will not become as popular as summer, but it will give ski walks in the forest a kind of mushroom tint.
E. Klimukhina, lover of "quiet hunting"
Photos of mushrooms from the best mushroom site http://www.mycoweb.narod.ru
The best mushroom spots in the region
- South-east of the Sverdlovsk region. There are a lot of milk mushrooms, saffron milk caps, russula, volushki.
- Middle Urals. This region is rich in the same fruits as the one above. However, not all mushroom pickers want to go on a quiet hunt in the deep taiga. Therefore, this part of the Urals is suitable for the most courageous connoisseurs of fruit bodies.
- Kononovo and Abakshino. There are a lot of boils and mushrooms growing in these places.
In any part of the Urals, an abundant amount of mushrooms grows. Therefore, going into the forest, every lover of a quiet hunt can be sure that he will return home with a rich catch. To do this, you do not need to know any special mushroom places - you just need to have an idea of what edible fruits look like, and how to distinguish them from inedible and poisonous ones.
Growing mushrooms in the garden
Growing mushrooms in the garden is not a tricky business. Honey mushrooms, boletus and aspen mushrooms can be grown like other types of mushrooms, under fruit trees and shrubs, in shady places.
In nature, mushroom picking begins in late spring and ends in late autumn, and each species has its own growing season and fruiting. "Household" mushrooms do not have a clearly defined growing season and fruiting, and therefore they can be planted and harvested at any time of the year.
The temperature range at which "garden" mushrooms will bear fruit is quite wide, from +5 to +29 ° С. Thus, having planted mushrooms in your personal plot, you will be able to harvest them for most of the year without leaving the gate.
Dangerous doubles of the summer mushroom with the name and photo
Edible mushrooms have many counterparts. Outwardly, these mushrooms are very similar. On closer inspection, summer mushrooms can be distinguished from their dangerous counterparts.
How to distinguish a gallery bordered from a summer mushroom
Bordered gallerina is a deadly poisonous mushroom. Its shape and color are identical to those of edible mushrooms. Galerina occurs from early August to late autumn.
Features of the bordered gallery:
- scales on the cap and leg are completely absent (edible mushrooms must have them)
- hemispherical cap (in young honey agarics it is more often asymmetrical, however, as it grows, it acquires a more regular shape)
- uniform reddish color of the cap (honey agarics have a darker center of the cap, there is a yellow ring around it, and a dark border around the edges)
- flour smell of pulp
- more common in coniferous forests
- grows singly or 2-3 pcs.
If gallerin enters the body, it leads to disruption of the liver and can be fatal. The most difficult thing is to distinguish between the fringed gallery and the summer mushroom when the mushrooms are overgrown.
False honey mushrooms are a group of mushrooms that mimic edible honey mushrooms. The twins have lamellar caps 5-7 cm in size and a 10 cm long stem. False heaps grow on decayed trees.
You can distinguish summer mushrooms from false ones by the presence of a ring on a leg, a dull cap, beige or yellowish plates in edible mushrooms. Poisonous specimens have an unpleasant odor that resembles mold or damp earth. On contact with water, false heels turn blue or black.
Coal-loving flake is a rare fungus suitable for food, but at the same time it does not possess taste and nutritional value.
Scale is a lamellar mushroom of medium to large size. In young specimens, the cap is hemispherical, in old ones it is flat-spread. The fruit body is always completely covered with scales. The leg is 3-6 cm long, rigid and fibrous.
The mushroom is considered conditionally edible. The taste and nutritional value are low. Psatirella has a yellow or brown cap with a tubercle and cracked edges.
Young mushrooms have a bell-shaped top that becomes flat over time. The surface of the cap is smooth and dry.
The leg is from 3 to 11 cm high, hollow, curved, with a mealy bloom. The plates are beige, gradually changing their color to brown. The pulp is brown, odorless, bitter in taste.
How to distinguish false mushrooms from real ones
A photo and analysis of a certain set of signs will help to learn to distinguish false mushrooms from real ones:
To find out how to distinguish false mushrooms from real ones, the video will help
The appearance of mushrooms
The mushrooms are false and edible, shown in the photo, can be determined correctly if you look closely:
- the caps of false species are colored more strikingly (in a bright yellow, terracotta-red color), while in edibles they are relatively modest, mainly of pale brown tones
- young edible specimens often have scales on the surface of the cap and stem, while scaly false mushrooms are not found
- plates on the back of the cap in edible species are usually white-yellow or cream in color, in false varieties their color is greenish or olive-black
- edible mushrooms are characterized by a noticeable leathery ring ("skirt") around the stem, in false ones it is hardly noticeable, or even absent altogether.
Here is another photo showing the difference between false agarics and real ones:
How false mushrooms differ from edible mushrooms by smell
To distinguish true mushrooms from false ones, their smell will help:
- thanks to the essential oils in edible specimens, they smell pleasantly of mushrooms (and the aroma increases during the cooking process)
- the odor of the false species is unpleasant - they smell like mold, damp earth or rotten grass.
False mushrooms taste unpleasant, bitter - however, it is quite natural that they are tasted not raw, but already cooked.
Description of the region's edible species
Before going hunting, you should familiarize yourself with the main characteristics of edible and inedible species, which is especially important if you do not have much experience in gathering. Ideally, you should go mushrooming with professionals, who are now increasingly organizing whole tours with parallel training in the art. But if this is not possible, then you will have to train these skills on your own, having undergone a brief theoretical training.
This representative of the Boletov family is rightfully considered one of the most famous and sought-after mushrooms, which is also reflected in its value. And residents of Chelyabinsk do not have to spend money on its acquisition, because the regional forests are rich in this delicacy.
Statuesque fleshy, this miracle mushroom with its brown velvety cap and even more massive creamy leg is visible in the distance. Like all boletus mushrooms, the variety has a tubular hymenophore, eventually becoming a victim of forest bugs and worms, although this practically does not affect the quality of the fruits, which are easily cleared of parasites and put to drying or in soups.
It is interesting that from only one hemp you can pick up a whole basket of small, strong honey agarics, from which excellent pickled and salty snacks are obtained, they grow so heap.
Another thing is that there are many varieties of these wood lovers, and not all of them are suitable for consumption, and false honey can even provoke a serious digestive upset.
Milk is a real delicacy, which requires a certain skill to find, because because of the very short leg, its funnel-shaped light cap, densely covered with transparent villi and mucus, often hides under a dense blanket of leaves and other forest debris.
Another distinguishing characteristic of the variety is its delicate, fruity aroma, which no other mushroom can boast. As for processing, excellent milk mushrooms are obtained only in salted form, therefore, in most cases, they are prepared in this way.
A beautiful, stately russula can have not only red or purple, but also a yellow, blue and even green hat with a narrow lamellar hymenophore, planted on a strong snow-white leg of an ideal shape. The russula is prepared in different ways, for 5-10 minutes, which is why the mushroom got its name.
Ryzhiks, like milk mushrooms, are good in salted form. They are even similar in appearance, with the only difference that the red mushrooms have a uniform color of their concave wide cap and wide short legs. The surface of these fruits is covered with a tough, fleecy skin, which must be removed before cooking, and this is not difficult to do, since the mushrooms are easy to clean.
Fruits similar to balls are not so common, but if you definitely want to try this delicious variety, then you should go to the very south of the region, to Lake Kremenkul and near Asha. Raincoats are also required to be cleaned before cooking.
Small ginger mushrooms are good in any form - they are added to soups, stir-fries, creamy, sour cream sauces and marinades. The only drawback of this variety is its low nutritional value. In addition, the chanterelle can be easily confused with a false variety, which differs from the edible species by a thin leg and an unnaturally bright orange color.
Aspen mushrooms are found quite often in the deciduous forests of Chelyabinsk. Mushrooms have a brownish or reddish cap and a strong high stem with numerous gray blotches. You can use these gifts of the forest in different forms: fried, baked, salted and pickled. In addition, the stumps are dried to obtain aromatic raw materials with a long shelf life.
A distinctive characteristic of these small fungi is their slippery, shiny cap, covered with a dense layer of viscous mucus. That is why the boletus is thoroughly processed, which boils down to cleaning and soaking, and only then proceed to their further preparation (as a rule, to pickling and pickling).
In the local forests there are boletus mushrooms, volnushki, and even forest mushrooms, which have excellent taste. Gathering mushrooms here is a real pleasure, because the chances of leaving the Chelyabinsk forest with empty baskets are almost zero.