Growing strawberry and Peruvian physalis
This sweet physalis
Berry Physalis Harvest
In the 80s of the last century, seeds of edible physalis first appeared in our sale. Physalis Is a plant from the Solanaceae family that came to us from South America. Gardeners were already familiar with the beautiful orange lanterns of the garden decorative physalis, but in fact for the first time they learned that there is also an edible physalis that produces fruits - berries hidden in a case.
Edible physalis is vegetable, sometimes it is berry. All gardeners tried to grow these novelties in their beds in order to appreciate the merits of this curiosity for themselves.
They were especially active in growing vegetable physalis. (Physalis philadelphica) - a plant native to Mexico, for which it is also called the Mexican tomato. Forms rather large fruits, simple cultivation techniques. Our magazine recently wrote about it (see. "Physalis - growing in the garden and application" →).
However, very quickly, most gardeners abandoned it. Despite the simplicity of cultivation and good yield: in its raw form, it is tasteless and aromatic, in comparison with our favorite tomatoes; jam and compotes from it are too sweet, and in the marinade our cucumbers are tastier. And the gardeners, having satisfied their curiosity, lost interest in him. Although in every publication dedicated to this culture, they must write that it deserves to be cultivated in our beds.
Because it is extremely useful, moreover, it is the only vegetable that has gelling properties. I once made wonderful gummies out of it. Now our breeders have obtained many excellent varieties of vegetable physalis. They are fruitful, cold-resistant, do not get sick. The seeds are always on sale.
The second type of edible physalis is the South American berry physalis. They are inferior to the vegetable species in terms of yield, but they are distinguished by an exquisite taste and aroma. However, they require more heat. The seeds of this physalis germinate at temperatures not lower than + 20 ° C.
In the conditions of our region, you can grow two varieties of berry physalis: raisin physalis, it is also strawberry (Physalis pubescens), and Physalis Peruvian (Physalis peruviana)... I give Latin names on purpose, because they usually write the same on bags with seeds of both types "Physalis raisin" or "strawberry"... And only on the reverse side of the seed bag, the Latin name is given in small print. In practice, it turns out later that these two types are different.
Berry physalis strawberry, or raisin
This type of physalis is called so for the pleasant aroma of its small sweet fruits and berries. The plant is an annual, undersized (30-35 cm) or medium-sized (50-70 cm), strongly branched with creeping or semi-raised branches. Leaves and stems are heavily pubescent. Unlike Mexican, strawberry physalis is self-pollinating. This is a short day plant.
With a long daylight hours, its growing season is delayed. The yield is 0.3-0.5 kg per plant. This physalis gives amber juicy fruits weighing 2-4 g, rather sweet, with a slight sourness, taste and light smell of pineapple or strawberries... Unlike the Mexican, the berries do not have a sticky coating. Therefore, they can be eaten directly from the bush by removing the cap. The species is distinguished by unpretentious cultivation, early ripening, and a long storage period for the harvested crop.
The fruits of strawberry physalis are eaten fresh, used to make jams, marmalades, jam, jelly, compotes, candied fruits, etc. Oven dried strawberry physalis resembles raisins, hence one of its names "raisin". Even if it is not specially dried, it becomes a raisin after long-term storage in the kitchen.
I tried to grow in my garden strawberry physalis varieties of our VIR - Izyumny and Strawberry, as well as varieties that came from England and Germany, but neither the taste nor the aroma of the berries obtained satisfied me. Among all the tried varieties, I consider our domestic variety Surprise to be the most delicious. This is a mid-season variety: it takes 120 days from germination to full maturation. A good harvest of this type of physalis can only be obtained in a greenhouse, if grown through seedlings.
The recommended seedling age is 35-45 days.
IN end of March I sow seeds for seedlings, just like tomatoes. They sprout in a week. On cloudy days, the seedlings have to be illuminated, because they tend to stretch out, like their nightshade cousins - tomatoes. At the stage of the first true leaf, the seedlings dive into cups with a volume of at least 150 ml. When diving seedlings should be buried almost to the cotyledons, not reaching them about 1-2 mm.
When the threat of frost passes and the soil warms up to + 10 ... + 12 ° C, I plant the seedlings in a garden bed, over which I put arcs, cover them with lutrasil, because the seedlings are afraid of frost. Often by this time the plants are already blooming with small pale yellow flowers with dark spots in the center. I leave a distance of 30 cm between the bushes. This is enough. For the first time, I planted a couple of plants for comparison in a greenhouse.
Despite the warm weather, the bushes grow slowly. However, it only seems so. They just have very short internodes. Small velvet leaves appear one after another, and in each internode a flower is formed, then a cap, in which a small berry is hidden.
Minimal care is needed. Bees are not required for this physalis, it is a self-pollinating plant. You can rarely water it, it is drought-resistant. It is useful to weed and loosen the soil, while the plants need to be huddled a little - that's all. If the leaves of the plant are pale, you need to feed it. It is not necessary to support the bushes, to form and cut off stepchildren is also not necessary. Do not get sick. Just a busy gardener's dream.
The fruits ripen at different times, starting from the lowest ones. A ripe fruit is when the berry has turned bright yellow or orange, and the "lanterns" have turned yellow-brown. Ripe berries are crumbled from the bush. You should try to collect them right there, because slugs and ants show interest in them. Unripe berries often fall off. They need to be kept warm for 10-15 days, and they will ripen. In the greenhouse, the yield is, of course, significantly higher. And the berries are larger. For example, if on the street the berries ripened weighing 2-4 g, then in the greenhouse - 3-6 g each.
The entire crop must be harvested before frost, because physalis cannot stand them at all. At home, fruits can last for 4-5 months. Over time, they dry out and become sweet raisins. You can not wait for raisins, but cook a very beautiful sweet jam.
Berries contain a lot of pectin, so they are healthy. If you eat 12 berries a day, your metabolism will soon improve. They are useful for cholecystitis and stomach cramps, and have a diuretic effect. They are recommended to be taken for hypertension, rheumatism. A decoction is prepared from dried berries - 20 berries per half a liter of boiling water. They drink it for gout, rheumatism.
In recent years, I have not sowed strawberry physalis for seedlings. It now actively reproduces by self-seeding. Every year I pull out extra plants in the greenhouse... They also grow on the compost heap and on all the beds where I put the compost. The harvest from each bush is small, but in total it is enough to eat enough ripe berries.
Berry Physalis Peruvian
The homeland of this type of physalis is Peru, as its name suggests. This is a very thermophilic and light-loving species, therefore it is rarely grown in household plots and only in greenhouses. Under the film cover, the height of some varieties of Peruvian physalis reaches 2.5 meters. From one square meter, you can collect from 0.4 to 1 kg of its fruits. The fruits can reach a mass of 3-9 g. The low yield of Peruvian physalis is compensated by the high nutritional value of its fruits, which contain many vitamins, trace elements and pectins.
The fruits of this species are distinguished by bright or brown-orange juicy pulp, which tastes and smells like a mixture of wild strawberries with pineapple. Unripe fruits can be ripened, but fruits ripened on a bush have the best taste. The keeping quality of Peruvian physalis fruits is low, so they are harvested in dry weather and make sure that their covers dry out. Berries of Peruvian physalis are consumed fresh, they are used to prepare jams, jams, compotes.
Once at an exhibition of Finnish vegetable products, among all the beautiful greenery, I saw a pile of bright gold-poured fruits the size of a small hazelnut. They exuded a divine aroma - a mixture of wild strawberries with pineapple, incomparably stronger than the aroma of strawberry physalis. The Finns explained to me that it was Peruvian Physalis. They were allowed to sniff, but not to try or take a berry for seeds. Peruvian Physalis has become my dream.
And now I was lucky: in one of the newly opened hypermarkets, I found among all the overseas fruits a small box filled with familiar orange-gold shiny berries in flashlight cases. The scent cannot be described with a pen. Yes, these are my acquaintances from the Finnish exhibition! The high cost did not stop me, but from the fruits - very tasty, sweet and sour - I extracted seeds. Sowed them on the last day of March. She also sowed Peruvian physalis seeds purchased from a seed shop. After 10 days, both of them ascended together, soon opened the cotyledons and released leaves with strong pubescence. And here it became clear that the purchased seeds and those extracted from the berries are one and the same plant, i.e. Physalis Peruvian.
It is more thermophilic and less early maturing than raisin physalis. It is also called Brazilian physalis, Colombian fish soup, Venezuelan topano - depending on the place of cultivation.
At the end of April, the cups with seedlings, where the strongest plants were, covered with buds, were taken to the greenhouse for hardening. The frost that happened one night killed them. So they are frost-resistant. We must take this into account in the future. Several weaker plants, which at one time were not taken to the greenhouse and were in the house during the freezing, had to be used for further cultivation.
In the first ten days of June, when the ground in the greenhouse warmed up, I planted them in the greenhouse. They immediately began to grow vigorously, each new leaf becoming larger than the previous one. The leaves are dark green, velvety, beautiful, shaped like hearts. I only had time to feed them - the same as tomatoes - and water them. In hot weather, the leaves withered, it was necessary to water intensively, abundantly.
Plants branched, a pale yellow flower with a dark "eye" appeared in each fork. The more branches, the more flowers. The flowers of this physalis are self-pollinating, but they did not set fruit. They turned out, like strawberry varieties, to be short-day plants.
Until the white nights passed, and the day was not shortened by a couple of hours, flowers rained down on the ground. And only in the middle of August the first light green lanterns were lit on the plant. By September, each plant had turned into a tree of almost two meters in height with a lush crown, occupying an area of more than one and a half square meters in the greenhouse. And not a single ripe fruit. All the tops of the plant had to be pinched so that it threw itself into the ripening of the fruits.
However, in places where it was pinched, new velvet stems and leaves were trying to grow with great force, which had to be constantly cut off. Rarely is such power found in plants. On the stem, up to the first fork, stepchildren grew vigorously, which I regularly removed.
On cold nights, which were plentiful in summer, the fruits did not grow. But in late September - early October, when the nights became warmer, the fruits suddenly began to ripen: their covers turned yellow, the berries inside acquired a bright orange color, a characteristic aroma appeared. The lanterns gleamed beautifully in the sun, it was a pity to rip them off, but in vain. Because soon the covers turned brown, and the fruit cracked. Henceforth, I did not overexpose them on the bush, and they remained intact.
About twenty ripe fruits were removed from each bush. Moreover, it turned out that the fruits inside the green caps, which were barely beginning to brighten, also ripened. The fruits were weighed, their weight was 6-10 grams.
And one more interesting observation. The stalks of the Peruvian physalis are very fragile. One branch with green fruits and flowers broke, I had to put it in a bucket of water outside. After a month and a half of life in a bucket, the fruits on the branch ripened completely, became fragrant and of normal taste, only slightly smaller than those that grew in the greenhouse. So there is something to think about. And it is also interesting that even at the end of October there was not a single speck from any disease on the leaves, not a single pest became interested in the plant. I will try to dry the leaves and make some tincture or powder from them for the next year to combat pests and diseases of other plants.
Thus, the fruits of Peruvian physalis in the conditions of our region can be brought to a completely edible form, but its bushes take up too much expensive greenhouse space. Therefore, the feasibility of growing this type of physalis is questionable. I think it might suit those who have a large, spacious greenhouse. That is why when buying seeds you need to pay attention to the Latin name, which is always given only on the back of the bag in small print.
Both physalis - both strawberry and Peruvian, can be used for compotes, jams, and all sorts of sweets can be made from them - this is in warm regions, where it is grown in large quantities. However, in our country, where these berries do not give such a big harvest, it is a sin to let them be processed. All these physalis delicacies are spoilage of a valuable product. Because they can be stored for a long time without any thermal processing, while preserving their vitamins. This means that they are especially useful raw, even in the form of raisins.
We rarely get to raisins. But on New Year's Eve, there is always a vase with golden fragrant berries on the festive table.
The origin of the vegetable.
Physalis is an annual plant of the nightshade family, which got its name from the rounded shape of the flower calyx (fiza - in Greek means bubble), inside which there is a fruit with numerous seeds.
The Physalis genus is represented by 110 botanical species, most of which belong to wild-growing weeds. Several types of physalis have decorative and nutritional value.
Useful properties and uses. Ornamental types of physalis (common and garden) have small orange-red fruits that can be used as a diuretic, analgesic and hemostatic agent. Physalis garden fruits are used as a harmless organic dye for food products. Winter bouquets are made from branches with orange "lanterns".
Those who want to pamper themselves with fresh sweet fruits of strawberry physalis all year round grow it on their windowsill. The care procedure is no different from growing in the open field, the main thing to remember is that this is a thermophilic plant and the sunny side will be the best place for growing strawberry physalis.
Juicy, bright orange and incredibly tasty fruits of strawberry physalis can be grown without much difficulty in your area, especially since, in addition to regular watering, several dressings, systematic loosening and hilling, no other care is required. Therefore, without a doubt, everyone can grow strawberry physalis on their site.
Last year I grew physalis Gold placer and Dessertny. The dessert one sprouted well, was quite large, almost not sticky, even ate a little raw, a little marinated in vegetable platters.It seems to be quite good, but did not fall in love with him. There are still seeds left. Gold placer - germination was disgusting. But the seeds from the eaten store physalis sprouted perfectly. Last year I grew up not in a particularly honorable place, I was not very capricious. It’s sunny by the fence, and it probably belongs there.Esme
We kept the ripe physalis in boxes for about a month (if in the refrigerator, then longer). And the unripe is first ripened, like tomatoes, so it will lie down longer.
Last year I planted strawberry and pineapple physalis from seedlings in open ground. It would have been better under the film, but there was not enough space. The pineapple didn’t have time to ripen, and the strawberry children were happy to pick and eat. Only it is very small, but sweet. In the fall, I collected the leftovers in covers and in the refrigerator they lay in a bag all winter (I forgot about them), but how nice it is to find a tasty treat in the spring!Valucha
Physalis ripened. Sowed Pineapple, Strawberry and Raisin. Grows in a greenhouse. The taste does not differ much from each other, but Raisin is the sweetest. Even, I would say, very sweet, like real raisins.Pretty
I am happy with physalis! And all my relatives "got hooked" on him. Planted for the first time in 2013: vegetable (Plum jam) and berry (Strawberry). Vegetable is utter disgust, and Strawberry is our love. The first year was planted with seedlings (sown in May, in June - transferred to open ground). Now I just cover the bed with a film, then I thin out the shoots and wait for the harvest! The whole is eaten fresh, it does not live up to the workpieces.
The very first time I planted it was the undersized one, but the seeds, I remember, were named "strawberry physalis". Since then, I have never come across such people again, they are all tall. And I really liked these malipuses, I planted them in a shaded corner, under an apple tree. In my opinion, I did the seedlings in the greenhouse, and not at home, well, definitely not at home, I did not grow anything at all then. They bloomed themselves and bore fruit themselves, I only picked up the fallen ripe berries from the ground, I made jam, and now I would be razyum. You don't need to do anything with him, especially stepchild, he has a fruit in every fork, tear off his stepsons - a loss of harvest.
Last season I planted Physalis Sugar Raisin. I sowed it in the last days of March, and it is not necessary earlier. Bushes are low, covered with small berries. I liked the taste very much - sweet with a fruity aroma. Compared to the taste with the store, the daughter said: "Mom, don't buy any more, what a bad thing compared to Izumchik." The only negative is a lot of seeds in the fruit. Probably, the jam would be delicious, but it didn't come to jam, everything was eaten instantly. We also planted Plum and Pineapple, but for some reason we did not become friends with them, we will not plant a second time, and Raisin is waiting for its days to plant.Valentine.
Growing physalis is within the power of even a gardener who has no experience. It cannot be argued that this exotic culture is capable of completely displacing the well-known tomatoes for a long time from personal plots, but it is quite possible for the plant to take a small garden bed. Contrary to popular belief, it requires minimal care, it does not suffer from diseases and pests. The fruits are not only healthy, but also very tasty.
Physalis has long been known to gardeners, but it is undeservedly rare in the beds, it is considered an exotic plant. Most often it is grown as an ornamental plant, the bright fruits of which decorate autumn and winter bouquets. And few realize that physalis can be eaten. You can make jams, jellies, preserves from it, you can pickle or pickle it, or you can eat it raw. In addition, physalis is a medicinal plant.
Physalis is very resistant to diseases and pests. The harvest can be obtained in any conditions, even the most unfavorable ones. Physalis care is similar to tomato care, but physalis is less whimsical.
Physalis can be divided into three groups: decorative, berry (strawberry, Peruvian), vegetable (Mexican tomato).
Strawberry Physalis is an annual plant. Reaches a height of 35-45 cm. Berries have a diameter of 6-12 mm, weight - 3-5 g, to taste - sweet, with a strawberry aroma. Color - amber yellow. From each bush, you can get up to 2 kg of berries.
The Mexican physalis is also an annual plant. Reaches a height of more than 1 m. Fruit weight - 30-90 g. Taste - from sugary sweet to spicy-sour. Color: white, yellow, orange, purple, green. From each bush, you can get 3-5 kg of fruit.
Growing physalis. Physalis varieties
Physalis is a genus of annuals and perennials. More than 100 of its species are known, common in subtropical and tropical countries, especially in Central America. Three species grow in Russia - Peruvian, strawberry and Mexican, which are found in the wild, and are also cultivated as ornamental and vegetable plants.
Peruvian physalis plants
Flowers and fruits of Peruvian physalis
Biological features. Physalis plants are small standing bushes cm high (in strawberry physalis plants are creeping), leaves are heart-shaped or oval, flowers are small, pale yellow, greenish-yellow or yellow, the fruit is a polyspermous berry enclosed in a cup that has grown in the form of a lantern. The fruits are green, yellow, orange or purple, round, in the Peruvian and strawberry physalis are small (weighing g), very sweet, with a pleasant strawberry aroma, in the Mexican physalis they are larger (g), but less sweet, without aroma.
The fruits of the Mexican physalis contain% dry matter, - Sugars,% pectin substances, mg% ascorbic acid. In strawberry physalis, the fruits have% dry matter,% sugars, mg% ascorbic acid, pectin substances, as well as fizalin and alkaloids.
Mexican physalis plant
Peruvian physalis is the most demanding for heat, late ripening, therefore it is grown mainly in the southern regions of the country. Strawberry physalis, although demanding for heat, is more early ripening, it is also grown in the central zone of the USSR. Mexican physalis is less demanding on heat, the growing season is days, it is cultivated in open ground in the central and even northern regions.
Varieties. There are no zoned varieties of physalis yet. Of the non-zoned varieties, the varieties of Mexican physalis with large, low-sweet fruits Moskovsky early, Gruntovy gribovsky, Konditersky and Krupnoplodny are widespread. Strawberry Physalis is represented by varieties with small, very sweet fruits, Raisin,, Strawberry. Peruvian physalis in our country is still grown from non-varietal planting material.
Agrotechnics. Physalis is cultivated, like tomato, in an annual culture by seedlings or by sowing directly into the ground. The best predecessors are cucumber and cabbage.
The soil for sowing or planting physalis is selected and prepared in the same way as for a tomato. The best soil is fertile, not very heavy, not acidic.
Branch with flowers and fruits of Mexican physalis
In autumn, t / ha of organic fertilizers are applied, stubble plowing (cultivation) and deep autumn plowing are carried out. In the spring, mineral fertilizers are applied, harrowing and presowing cultivation are carried out.
Seedlings of Mexican physalis are grown within days, strawberry - in nutritious pots 6 × 6 or 8 × 8, placed in film greenhouses or nurseries in the open field. Seedlings of strawberry physalis dive, seedlings of Mexican physalis dive is optional.
Mexican physalis fruit
Seeds are sown in open ground and seedlings are planted after frost days before planting a tomato or simultaneously with it. The sowing and planting scheme is 70 × 40 or 70 × 50 cm, up to a thousand plants are placed per hectare. The seeding rate for seedlings is g / ha, and for sowing in the ground - 1 kg / ha. Care is mainly to combat weeds and diseases in the same way as in tomato crops. Cultivation of row spacings and weeding in rows with hilling plants, as well as feeding with liquid organic and mineral fertilizers are carried out.
The fruits ripen at different times, and the ripe ones crumble to the ground. Therefore, they should be removed regularly, as they mature, both from plants and from the soil. Undamaged fruits can be stored for a long time. Productivity - t / ha. Plants bear fruit before frost. Frozen fruits can be used for processing.
Using. The fruits of Peruvian and strawberry physalis are consumed fresh, dried (for compotes and puddings) and candied, and they are also used to make jam from Mexican physalis to make caviar, stews, mashed potatoes, sauces and seasonings, vinaigrette, salads, borscht, candied fruits, jam, jam. Before use, the fruits are peeled and washed in hot water.
Decorative form of strawberry physalis
Information for owners of country houses: Viessmann liquid fuel boilers will make your home truly cozy and comfortable. You can order them in the "Rost" group of companies.
Fertilization for various fruit and berry crops
Young fruit garden (apple, cherry, pear). After planting seedlings, it is necessary to create conditions for the rapid development of the roots and crown of the tree. For this, starting from the fall of the second year after.
Growing endive and escariola
Endive and escariole are lettuce salads, which are varieties of cykoric lettuce. These are very ancient cultures, their homeland is India. They are currently.
Berries, vegetables and fruits in the garden
The soil and climatic conditions of the Udmurt Republic make it possible to grow the following fruit and berry crops throughout its territory: apple, cherry, pear, sea buckthorn, currant (black.
How to grow physalis? 10 surprising facts + planting, growing and recipe for delicious jam
I "got acquainted" with physalis a long time ago (in 2011), accidentally seeing plants unfamiliar to me in a vegetable garden of a neighbor. I asked her and found out that it was a "strawberry" variety. The next year I bought pineapple seeds (there was no strawberry).
An interesting plant did not require special attention to itself, it grew healthy, gave fruits with a pleasant sweetish berry-fruit taste, and the next year it sprouted by self-sowing. Since then it has been growing on my site pineapple physalis.
I have always liked cultures from the category of "self-growing", so I decided to learn more about Physalis.
Interesting about physalis
- This plant has many amazing names. Physalis is called "emerald berry", "earthy cranberry", "earthy cherry", "Mexican tomato", "Chinese lanterns" or "raisin berry".
- Physalis contains a lot of organic acids, such as citric, malic, tartaric, etc. The culture is a source of polysaccharides such as glucose, fructose. Physalis contains more pectins than apples. And the lycopene in it, which gives the berries a yellow or orange color, is a natural antioxidant.
- Physalis is recommended for diabetic nutrition. The substances that make up it are able to keep blood glucose levels within the normal range.
- There are three main types of physalis that are grown here.
✔ Mexican gluten-fruited (vegetable). Height can reach 150 cm, not a demanding plant, the seeds of which germinate at + 10 ° C. The fruit is large enough and covered with a sticky substance, which must be washed off with warm water before eating. The taste of the fruit is specific. used for the preservation of salads, jams.
✔ Raisin (or strawberry, pineapple). The fruits have a pleasant sweet taste and amazing aroma, but the plant is more thermophilic. The fruits are dried and prepared with compotes and jam.
✔ Decorative physalis. A plant with non-edible berries is often used by florists in compositions with winter bouquets.
- Physalis is a perennial crop belonging to the nightshade family, with a fruit-berry enclosed in a flashlight, similar to paper Chinese.
Planting and growing physalis
- The first option is growing seedlings at home.
The term for sowing seeds is from March 20 to April 15. Small seeds are buried (or sprinkled) by 0.5-0.8 cm.
It is possible to plant in the garden only after the end of return frosts, after the first decade of June. And if you grow in a greenhouse, then earlier.
+ 15 ° C is enough for seed germination, after germination it may be even less by a couple of degrees. Such a low temperature for pecking seeds allows you to grow physalis in a seedless way.
- The second option is sowing in a permanent place.
As soon as the soil warms up to + 10-12 ° С (here it is the end of April - the beginning of May), you can start sowing. Landings are covered with non-woven fabric or 5-liter cans are used.
- The plant does not need to be shaped and pinned! But, around the middle of summer, you need to pinch the tops of the shoots.
- Physalis has a fairly long shelf life: for ripe berries it is 1-2 months, and for immature berries - up to 6 months.
- The required optimum temperature is up to + 15 ° С.
- For long-term storage, the fruits are placed in a mesh container or cardboard box, without removing the flashlight cups from them.
- Before using, free the berries from the shell and rinse them in warm water, removing the sticky plaque.
- It is added in a small amount to salad dishes: the freshish taste gets light pungency and sourness. Sour cream or waste oil is used as a dressing.
- As a folk remedy for toothache. To do this, pour 10-15 berries with half a liter of boiling water and cook at a low boil for 5 minutes, cool, filter and rinse your mouth 3-5 times a day, each time heating the broth.
Subscribe to the channel so as not to miss important and useful things.
Did you like the article? Like and repost would be the best gratitude. Questions and your opinion in the comments are welcome!