Preparing the garden for winter in late autumn
Preparing the site for winter
The real owner has a lot of urgent things to do in the garden in late autumn. It will be about plots of any area and any degree of cultivation. Gardeners in the fall need to do the work without which they would be unthinkable:
- normal harvest of fruit and berry crops in the new season;
- original, inherent only to the style chosen by the owners of the site, the type, shape and size of ornamental plants;
- the ability of the soil to reproduce existing plantings and susceptibility to innovations, regardless of the purpose (harvest, interesting design, exotic plants).
So, the first thing to do: if after the past in August, September, october rainy paths on your "hacienda" are not blurred - do not read this paragraph of the activities. If this nevertheless happened to you, then follow the direction of the streams and, in accordance with the relief of the site, dig, depending on the slope, ditches 15-30 cm wide at the bottom, 25-50 cm at the top, 50-70 cm deep. the steeper the slope, the larger the section of the trench. Trim the edges and bottom of the ditch with medium-sized cobblestones placed in a mixture of lime (cement) and sand with a mallet. It will be nice and functional.
Suppose that your site is so small, for example, it has an area of 6 acres, that the loss of 10 square meters of area is unacceptable for you, and the site needs to be drained. In addition, new tests are coming in the future - spring melting of snow, floods, etc. In this case, fill the entire volume of the drain with crushed stone with a fraction of 20-40 mm, cover with a fertile layer of soil and, depending on the thoroughness of the work done, plant a decorative shrub on top, if the drainage runs parallel to the fence (you get a hedge) or sow with grass; arrange a discount, elongated rockery, but under no circumstances plant conifers or fruit plants, since after a few years the drainage may need to be repaired, and replanting trees will be difficult or impossible.
The second thing to consider. The site has been drained, tidied up, and the fall, as we have in the Leningrad region, is late and not very cold. Do not plant everything, although the choice of seedlings in any direction, especially in Primorsky, Vyborgsky, Priozersky, is great and varied. Treat the planting carefully and conform not only to your desires, but also to the logic of the site arrangement.
Without trying to grasp the immensity and planning the seats in advance, plant the berry at the end of September - October without any problems: gooseberry, yoshtu, red and black currant, honeysuckle, viburnum, chokeberry; fruit trees - only in containers, only from trusted suppliers, only zoned varieties; conifers - also only in containers and without fail having previously familiarized themselves with the material not from neighbors in the village, but by talking with the manager of the seller, with a specialist in landscape design, an agronomist with experience in the North-West region. Otherwise, inevitable: planting attacks by 70-100%, especially for large-sized ones, the cost of new planting material, the interruption of new seats. In short, a miser pays not twice, but three times.
Fill the land for fruit crops with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, and for conifers - with well-rotted manure or compost with the addition of Kemira-agro. Do not forget to water all new plantings before winter.
Thirdly, mow the lawn for the last time, moreover, not lower than 5-6 cm. Do not leave the cut grass in place - not harvested, it melts and ruins the young aftermath. Aerate the lawn with a pitchfork, thorns, and a special lawn mower device. Sprinkle light sandy loam soil (0.5-1 cm), filled with complex mineral fertilizer, sow bald spots.
The fourth thing to do. In the garden, cares are traditional for autumn. The trunks must be cleaned in dry weather, seal the hollows, having previously disinfected with copper or iron sulfate. Whitewash them at the same time as the first night frosts.
Fifth important thing. Hedge also feed in accordance with the breed of shrubs and, if it is more than a year old, carry out its formation at the end of September-October, while removing dry, diseased, broken, poorly located branches. Make sure to follow the preparation of conifers planted this season for winter.
Pay attention to constant, but not excessive soil moisture. In July of this year, 108 fir trees of approximately one meter height were planted as a hedge in the cottage village Greenside, near Kamenka. The plants were selected in the forest, both from the thicket and from the meadows, so the root system, density and color of the needles were completely different. The landing was carried out in two days. Nevertheless, thanks to the rains and one root feeding, the trees gave a small increase in September, and none of them dropped their legs. If frosts do not come soon, and they come after the snow falls, then you can count on a high (70-80%) survival rate of plantings.
Consultations on the improvement and gardening of your site, planting and caring for an orchard, improving the quality of the fertile layer can be obtained by calling: 722-77-26, 723-25-95, + 7-911-219-72-54.
Anatoly Kofman, gardener
Errors in preparing the garden for winter: planting, pruning, whitewashing
Preparing a site for winter is a responsible business. We can say that this is a real marathon: winter is on the nose, and there is so much to be done! And in this hurry, we sometimes make a lot of mistakes, do a lot of unnecessary things, but forget about the necessary things, we carry out many garden activities not in the most rational way, without taking into account many important little things.
Preparing a site for winter is a responsible business
As a result, such training will have a very low efficiency, despite the labor costs and time. And this cannot be allowed, because the winter "sleep" of the site determines the entire next season. As the saying goes, "Monday starts on Saturday." So let's consider the main mistakes when preparing a site for winter, while there is still something you can do or fix. So:
Taking care of the trees
From the beginning of October, fruit trees must be carefully inspected for damage and the remaining fruits must be completely removed. When removing them from the branches, in no case leave the carrion on the ground - it must be disposed of. Just do not throw it into the compost heap, it is better to bury it deeply in the ground somewhere on the outskirts of your site. It will be useful to remove other plant residues that can be dangerous for the garden,
It is better to collect fallen leaves in a heap and sprinkle with lime - useful fertilizer for next year has not prevented anyone. And if fertilizer is needed in the near future, compost it using the express method.
Speaking about the autumn harvesting of foliage, I will also mention that in the past few years the number of opponents of such an event has increased dramatically. First of all, this is due to the statement that fallen leaves, allegedly, serve as protection for the roots of trees located in the upper layer of the soil. But is it? Everyone chooses the answer for himself.
All fallen leaves must be removed
Most experienced gardeners today fully agree that foliage should be harvested in a timely manner, ideally in the middle of autumn. In the fallen leaves at rest there are many pests and pathogens that can cause irreparable harm to your garden in the near future. But there are those who use leaf litter to strengthen the immunity of fruit trees - grafting. But you shouldn't burn the fallen leaves: this way, of course, you will clear your garden of sleeping parasites, but you will cause irreparable harm to the environment.
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The uniquely designed bell provides good balance and ease of maneuvering. The fuel priming pump makes starting the tool easy. The controls are arranged in one easily accessible place. The switch automatically returns to the ON position to facilitate engine restart.
Adjustable flare length and airflow rate for maximum efficiency. The working volume of the engine is 28 cm³, the rated power is 0.8 kW, the capacity of the fuel tank is 0.5 liters.
Pruning fruit trees
The most important stage in preparing the garden for winter is pruning fruit trees and berry bushes, which must be carried out in dry weather and always before the onset of stable frosts. Remember! The air temperature during the procedure should not fall below -10 ° C, since at lower temperatures the wood becomes very fragile.
First of all, fruit trees need to be cleaned of dry, broken and diseased branches. It is also advisable not to leave branches growing inside the crown on the tree. When cutting off shoots, remember: the cut should be even, as smooth as possible, there should be no bark scuffs on it. Keep in mind that a humid environment is ideal for the reproduction of spores of woody fungi, which is why fresh sections must be thoroughly cleaned and treated first with a solution of copper sulfate (1 teaspoon per 1 liter of water), then with a garden pitch. The cut will now overgrow quickly enough to keep the tree healthy.
Autumn pruning of apple trees
After cutting off all unnecessary and diseased branches, carefully examine the trees. If you find mosses, lichens or polypores, remove immediately. It is in such secluded places that pests love to winter.
If there are trapping belts on the trees, they must also be removed before winter. Just burn disposable paper ones, and wash and clean reusable fabrics before spring arrives.
Treating the garden with insecticides
If fungal formations are found on trees, treat them with fungicides. To kill garden pests, treat plants with insecticides.
Treating the garden with insecticides. Photo site sadoved.com
To get rid of the spores of pathogenic microbes that cause coccomycosis, scab, powdery mildew and other diseases, spraying tree trunks with a solution of urea (0.5 kg of urea per bucket of water), or a solution of copper sulfate (300 g of the drug per bucket of water), or a solution of household soap and soda ash (50 g of soap + 400 g of soda per bucket of water). Ready-made preparations, such as Aktara, Horus and Karbofos, have also proven themselves well.
Loosening the soil - garden pest control method
It is better to loosen the trunk circle with a pitchfork.
Excellent results in the fight against garden pests are shown by loosening the trunk circle to a depth of about 20 cm, after which the pests and their larvae trapped in the upper layers of the soil should die from frost. It is better to loosen the ground around the tree not with a shovel, but with a pitchfork, so you eliminate the likelihood of injury to the roots of the tree, especially for young seedlings.
Moisture-charging watering - protecting the plant from drying out
Autumn is not rainy every year, and as a result, even before the onset of winter, the land in the garden has time to dry out. That is why moisture-charging watering plays an important role in preparing the garden for winter. But the most important thing in this procedure is to correctly calculate the amount of water required for each tree, as well as determine the irrigation area.
There is nothing difficult with the amount of water: use 50 liters per 1 m² of trunk circle. The water temperature should be 5 ° C higher than the air temperature. As for the area: trees up to 5 years old are watered, distributing water around the circumference of the trunk circle. Adult trees (over 5 years old) are best watered along the periphery of the crown. Watered in stages, ideally spending 15-20 liters of water per hour, this will help it disperse in the soil as evenly as possible.
Moisture-charging watering of trees. Photo site dachadecor.ru
Watering is possible both in the trunk circle and in the holes around the tree. If you pour water into the holes, after watering, be sure to fill them up so that during thaws water does not stagnate in them, which can cause irreparable harm to the roots of trees. After watering, it is better to mulch the ground around the tree with peat, humus or compost.
The bark of trees in winter also needs protection, and autumn whitewashing will be the best for it, which will protect not only from pests, but also from spring sunburn. Before whitewashing, the tree trunk is cleaned of lichens, mosses and dead bark. It is necessary to whitewash the entire lower part of the trunk to the base of the lower skeletal branches.
Whitewashing of trees is necessary in the fall
Use both a ready-made whitewash and one prepared independently from 3 kg of lime and 500 g of copper sulfate, diluted in 10 liters of water. To keep the composition on the tree as long as possible and not wash off quickly in the pouring rains, add 200 g of wood glue to it.
The articles will tell even more about the intricacies and nuances of this procedure:
- Old Gardener's Secrets About Whitewashing Trees
- How to properly whitewash trees in the garden
- Whitewashing trees: when, how and whether it is necessary at all
- 7 super tree whitewash mixes that won't hit your wallet
What else can be done for the successful wintering of the garden, how to increase the winter hardiness of fruit trees, you can see by watching the video of our permanent author Olga Voronova.
Shelter of plants for the winter
Garden plants such as grapes, boxwood, clematis, roses, cypress trees, thuja under the age of 5 years and many others need shelter for the winter. They use a special covering material (for example, agrospan or lutrasil) or improvised materials (spruce branches, ordinary burlap and even straw).
Roses are covered for the winter
A house is built around the plant from arcs or wooden bars, and on top it is covered with a selected covering material, which is fixed with twine. Having protected the trunk and crown with such a house, the root part of the plant is also covered with spruce branches or mulched with peat.
It is better to cover for the winter and grafting of standard trees. To do this, you can use the same lutrasil or agrospan, only tied with twine on top.
Protect conifers from snow
Oddly enough, but most of all heavy snowfalls are afraid of evergreens: thuja, spruce, and so on. Too much snow can accumulate on their fluffy paws, and sooner or later this will lead to the fact that the branches, unable to withstand the heavy load, will simply break.
For conifers, crowns are pulled together and tied
Protecting such plants is simple:
- pull the branches together, this will reduce the surface area and the plant will be safe
- after heavy snowfalls, simply shake off the snow from the branches.
The nuances of preparation and the shelter itself are described in detail in the article Conifers: what threatens them? Modern methods of protection
Protecting trees from rodents
Preparing fruit trees and shrubs for winter
When preparing the garden for winter, one should not forget about the main gardeners - fruit trees and shrubs. In order for them to survive the winter well and begin to grow successfully in the spring, you need to properly prepare them for the fall.
Removing trapping belts
For the winter, it is tedious to remove the trapping belts from the trees. Disposable paper must be burned. Reusable fabrics - wash and put away in a secluded place before the new garden season.
Sanitary autumn pruning of fruit trees and shrubs should be done before the first frost. Otherwise, when freezing, the wood will become fragile and the event will cause severe damage, and will do much more harm than good.
In fruit trees and shrubs, all dry, damaged, broken branches, shoots affected by diseases and pests should be cut off. Branches that grow inside the bush or crown, as well as crossing shoots, are also subject to removal.
Note! When trimming, the cut must be smooth, even. It is very important to avoid scuffing the bark, ragged and uneven cuts.
Slices after the procedure are an excellent breeding ground for pathogens of fungal diseases. To prevent infection of a tree or shrub, and any pathogenic processes, it is necessary to process all sections immediately after the procedure. First, it is optimal to lubricate them with a solution of a fungicide, for example, copper sulfate (a teaspoon per liter of water). After treatment with a fungicide, you should cover them with garden varnish or a special putty (you can buy it at a garden center or store).
Removal of dead bark and lichens
It is best to remove them with a wooden scraper. It is not recommended to use metal straps or brushes, they easily injure the surface.
Whitewashing the bark is the most important stage in preparing trees for winter. The procedure performs several important functions at once: protection against temperature extremes, frost, sunburn (both in winter and early spring), as well as protection against various pests (after all, insect larvae can settle in the bark). Such adversity can lead to damage to the bark, and the most unfavorable consequence is frost holes, that is, large cracks, they are very dangerous because they cause significant damage to the trees.
The procedure is the final stage of wood processing, that is, it is necessary to whitewash the bark after removing the trapping belts, pruning, removing lichens, and dead bark.
The entire trunk is subject to whitewashing in the lower part (that is, from the surface of the earth to the lower skeletal branches).
You can use commercially available tree whitewash and can be purchased at almost any garden center or specialty store. Or you can make the solution yourself. For example, you can use the following recipe: copper sulfate (0.5 kg) + lime (3 kg) + water (10 liters) + it is advisable to add wood glue (100 g) for strength.
Protecting young trees and shrubs from rodents
In the first few years of life, young trees and shrubs are especially vulnerable to rodents (hares, mice), which can easily chew on young and soft bark in winter.
To prevent the encroachment of mice and hares, it is recommended to install special anti-rodent nets around the trunk (you can buy them in specialized stores).
You can also make protection with your own hands: cut the neck and bottom of the plastic bottle, make a transverse size, put it on the barrel, fix it with tape (if the barrel is long, it is better to use several bottles).
Top dressing of fruit trees and shrubs
As phosphorus-potassium fertilizers for shrubs and trees, you can use Superphosphate and Potassium Sulfate, or one drug - Potassium Monophosphate (already contains both phosphorus and potassium). You need to use fertilizers according to the instructions.
Vegetable garden in the fall. What to do in the fall in the garden and garden, preparing mulch
Autumn is a deceptive season, during the day the weather can delight us with its warmth and sun, and at night the thermometer can sometimes reach 0 degrees. Due to such an unstable temperature, many crops are deprived of the opportunity to bear fruit.
How can you help plants prepare for winter? What kind of work must be done in the fall at the dacha? We will analyze the answers to these questions in this article.
Autumn is primarily harvest time.
1.In September, autumn and winter varieties of apples and pears are harvested. But it is important to properly remove fruits from the branches so that they are stored for as long as possible:
- fruits should be harvested when it is cool outside (fruits harvested in the heat and lying in the sun are stored much worse and less)
- pick fruits with gloves so as not to accidentally scratch them, and with the stalks, with them the fruits are stored longer
- it is recommended to remove the fruits first from the lower branches of the tree, then from above - this reduces the risk of injuring apples and pears
- do not wipe the fruits, let the natural protective wax remain on them - this way, you will extend their shelf life.
2. Empty the beds with tomatoes and peppers. These vegetables are unlikely to be fully ripe, so green fruits can also be harvested. They will be able to mature at home, in a closet. Only in order for vegetables to be better stored and not subjected to decay processes, they need to be thoroughly rinsed with soda.
3. Greenhouse crops can safely bear fruit before freezing temperatures, so do not rush to remove them from the greenhouse.
4. Carrots are best harvested from the beds at the end of September, when the first frosts come. Being in the garden, it is better stored and nourished with vitamins.
5. It is recommended to dig up the beets at the beginning of September, before the first frost. if it freezes, it will not be stored.
6. Potatoes are harvested according to the variety planted, usually in September or early October.
7. In general, each root crop has its own assembly time, which is important to observe, because the duration of storage directly depends on them.
8. Root parsley is harvested in the middle of the month, from 15 to 25 September.
The beds that have been freed from the harvest are recommended to be sown with siderates, which are chosen depending on which plants will be planted in the garden in spring. Siderata loosen the soil, filling it with useful substances.
Autumn preparation of the soil for winter
Autumn processing will help not only increase soil fertility, but also get rid of harmful insects, weeds and various diseases.
Soil cultivation for the prevention of diseases and pests
It is recommended to start tillage immediately after harvesting, because on plant residues, harmful microorganisms, rot and fungi can arise, which in the future will also infect the earth.
The beds need to be put in order, cleaned of weeds, fruits and dry tops. The collected garbage does not have to be burned, you can just put it in compost, because there are no suitable conditions for the development of pathogenic microflora.
Loosening the topsoil
Immediately after cleaning the beds from plant debris, loosen them to a depth of 4 cm. This will help break up the crust that has formed on the soil.
It is important to have time to carry out the loosening process before the onset of cold weather, because it provokes the growth of weeds, the seedlings of which will die during frosts. This, in turn, will help reduce weeding in the spring.
Digging in the fall is useful, but not for all types of soil. For example, it will not bring any effect on sandy soil, but it will significantly improve the structure of heavy loamy soil.
In addition, autumn digging has other advantages:
- helps in the fight against pests and diseases, because clods of earth turned up on the surface are frozen and disinfected
- helps to reduce the number of weeds that die after digging
- more snow accumulates on the dug surface, so the soil is deeply saturated with snow moisture.
Tip: it is better to dig up the soil before the beginning of October. More precisely, before the heavy rains come. After all, soil that is soaked to a depth of more than 10 cm cannot be dug up, this can disrupt its structure.
It is recommended to dig up the soil to a depth of about 20 cm, turning over the lumps, but it is not necessary to break them up and level the bed on purpose.
Mulching the soil in autumn
Trunks and flower beds are covered with mulch so that crops can survive the winter safely. Mulch should be laid in late autumn, when the topsoil has already begun to freeze.
The thickness of the mulching material should be at least 5-10 cm, then you will achieve the desired result. If the mulch layer is less than 5 cm, then there will be no effect from it.
Autumn care of lilies before and after pruning
In addition to pruning, in the fall, to prepare for winter, lilies require feeding and treatment for diseases.
Immediately after these perennials have faded, under them fertilizers should be applied, which include potassium and phosphorus. For example one can use potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate) and superphosphate, 30-40 grams per 1 sq. meter of a bed or flower bed, or a special ready-made mineral fertilizer marked “Autumn ". For lovers of organic farming, suitable bone meal (phosphorus) and wood ash (potassium), 100 grams per 1 sq. meter.
Important! However, one cannot use ash for lilies that do not tolerate alkalization of the soil, and these are varieties such as "Oriental", "Asian", "American", "LA-hybrids".
Such a potassium-phosphorus fertilizing will allow the plants to mature by the onset of winter, recuperate after abundant flowering and prepare for the onset of cold weather. These fertilizers will allow the root system to receive a large amount of nutrients and better withstand cold weather, as well as in the spring will make it possible to grow faster in the aerial part of the flowers.
A layer of decayed foliage or compost should be added under those lilies that will not be dug out for the winter. (the thickness of such a layer should be at least 15-20 cm). This fertilizer will serve as a kind of "blanket" for the roots and their additional protection from the impending frost. And in the spring, humus will be a good fertilizer and mulch for lilies.
This shelter is suitable for long-flowered, oriental and American hybrids.
The main feeding is over, but the care of flowering perennials continues.
This is followed by a couple of times sprinkle the lilies with copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid... Such treatment will protect the plants from possible diseases during the rainy season.
Already from the end of summer, that is, from about mid-August, it is recommended to exclude watering of lilies altogether, because the bulbs can simply get wet due to the abundant moisture.
Despite the fact that in autumn the air temperature drops noticeably and the daylight hours are reduced, autumn gardening is still comfortable and pleasant. Especially on dry, clear and calm days. At the beginning of the season, perennials, shrubs, and ornamental cereals bloom brightly. Fruit trees are still pleasing to the eye with an abundance of crops, and berry bushes are still ready to share with the owner.
Towards the middle of autumn, trees and shrubs enter the deep sleep phase. And for gardeners, the time begins for active harvesting, preparing plants and soil for winter, processing fallen leaves into humus for the root system, arranging a greenhouse, etc.
The end of autumn does not imply mass processes. The emphasis is traditionally placed on sanitary pruning of shrubs and branches on trees, preparation of cuttings for storage.
An equally important task for November is whitewashing trees and protecting them from rodents. To do this, I wrap a thick layer of newspapers around the trunks, open them with roofing material or a thick film, sprinkle them with earth.
Autumn gardening in September
In September, when summer is just receding, the work of caring for your favorite garden begins to boil. You can't keep track of everything, but you can keep up with doing the most important thing.
- Gathering and processing, as well as laying the harvest of apples, pears, plums and other things for storage for the winter.
- Cleaning of fallen leaves and further laying of leaf humus - fertilizers.
- Pruning and mulching perennial shrubs for the winter.
- Planting seedlings of berry bushes and fruit trees in the garden.
- Collection of seeds of rare varieties and especially valuable plant species.
What to do in the orchard in October?
October is the equator of autumn, a period of massive rains and, in fact, the closing of the gardening season in remote cold regions. Due to active leaf fall during this period, the garden is filled with bright colors. In addition to everything - variegated berry bushes and fruits not fully collected on trees. The main autumn work in the orchard in October is reduced to this list.
Thorough autumn cleaning in the garden.
- Harvesting the last harvest.
- Transplanting shrubs and trees after the foliage is completely shed.
- Pruning and mulching shrubs and perennials for the winter.
- Cleaning in a garden greenhouse: preparation for winter, disinfection, pest control.
- Reproduction in the garden of perennial bushes by layering and division.
- Supports, shelters and garters for the winter for weak shrubs. Frame for hydrangeas, prikop, etc.
Autumn gardening in November
In November, a truly winter frost comes to our territories. Almost everywhere, garden life freezes, and in cold regions it is completely postponed until March-April. Since the daylight hours during this period are very short, and the weather outside the house is poor, it is worth gradually switching to indoor work. For example, make the last preparations for the winter, grow greens on the windowsill, water and feed indoor flowers.
Autumn garden work continues exclusively in warm regions, and even there they are reduced to the required minimum:
- remove fallen leaves and lay humus
- if necessary, transplant the remaining trees (cherry, apple) and shrubs
- organize winter shelters and a frame for bushes
- do the last garden cleaning of the season
- install bird feeding and winter feeders
- fertilize the soil with ash from a fireplace or ash from a fire.